Women today’s are politicians, economists and scientists …etc.
But this wouldn’t be materialized without feminist movement ,which raise the sound of woman and made it widely audible. Feminism is movement and ideology seeks to defend woman wrights and interest,it call for equality between gender to end sexism.This chapter deals with the general definition of feminism in addition to the most influential figures in this movement, than we move to the waves of feminism which historically developed by three waves,at the end of this chapter we discuss the marginalization against woman that lead here to made this movement.
2-2 Feminism2-2-1 Definition Although some people consider feminism as a way to encourage women upheaving against men there are many definition for feminism movement that approve the opposite, some of theme: feminism is to believe in the principle that woman should have equal right with men (oxford 293). The issue of rights for women first became prominent during the French and American revolutions in the late 18th century. In Britain it was not until the late 19th century that there was significant political change. A ‘second wave’ of feminism arose in the 1960s, with an emphasis on unity and sisterhood; seminal figures included Betty Friedan and Germaine Greer. A ‘third wave’ was identified in the late 1980s and 1990s, as a reaction against the perceived lack of focus on class and race issues in earlier movements.Originated in the Late of 19th century: from French feminism (feminism1).Also”a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation and oppression” (Hooks1).
Feminism is a collection of political movements, social movements and ideologies that defend different rights of women. Also it aim at achieving and establishing equality between genders (Flouli1).2-2-2Feminist Figures To fight for equality and freedom is not something easy .But there are some writers who keep fighting using their words which was powerful andwith great impact.Those writers on feminist theory, conceders key for understanding what feminism has been all about. Rachel Speght 1597-?Rachel Speght was the first woman known to have published a women’s rights pamphlet in English under her own name.
She was English. She was responding, from her perspective within Calvinistic theology, to a tract by Joseph Swetmen which denounced women. She countered bypointing to women’s worth. spoke for not only herself but many of the women of France, when in 1791 she wrote and published the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen. Modeled on the 1789 Declaration of the National Assembly, defining citizenship for men. In this document, de Gouges both asserted woman’s capability to reason and make moral decisions and pointed to the feminine virtues of emotion and feeling (Jane Johnson).
Frederika Bremer 1801 – 1865 A Swedish writer, was a novelist and mystic who also wrote on socialism and on feminism. She studied American culture and the position of women on her American trip in 1849 to 1851, and wrote about her impressions after returning home. She’s also known for her work for international peace(Jane Johnson). Elizabeth Cady Stanton 1815 – 1902American socialist, activist.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton helped organize the 1848 woman’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, where she insisted on leaving in a demand for the vote for women — despite strong opposition, including from her own husband. Stanton was close to Susan B. Anthony, writing many of the speeches which Anthony traveled to deliver(Jane Johnson).