Without communication we cannot imagine a single society, community, state, group or country as it is needed for connection with each other and each of the state, society, group for the demand of everyday life. Generally communication is a two process of transferring thoughts and ideas with an intention of delivering information. In this entire assignment, I will try to focus about the details of different theories, communication method, reviewing methods, strategies of different service user to support them, how to respect of service user beliefs, views, effectiveness of Information communication technology and its improving process, laws and legislation about this and impact of ICT using in the health and social care settings.
1.1 Relevant theories in health and social care:
Practically we can see different kind of theories in health and social care study area. These are classified as Behaviourist theory, operant theory, cognitive and social learning theory.
A. Behaviourist theory suggests us it is the basis of ideas that should be acquired through conditioning. Responses to surrounding environmental stimuli shape our behaviour which is mainly shaped our contemporary ideas and thoughts. Say for example we Mr. AB Chandra (fictive name) he is sick (diarrhoea) and feeling bad. Firstly we consider his surrounding areas what can be the fact for his particular disease. That should be consider by doctor and nurse on environmental issues or surroundings.
B. Operant theory shows us two enforcement ways which can be define as a positive and negative result based on the service provided. In what sorts of service make the professional people confident that is first case of how the client are happy and what sorts of service give the professional people negative feedback from the client that are dealing with this thoughts.
C. Social learning theory is an observation of someone behaviour which is achieved through social values, beliefs, life style, etc. that is to be define from the entire social perspective.
1.2 Use communication skills in health and social care:
We already know that communication is a big fact in the practical life which is mainly depend on a two way process to transferring the information between the sender and receiver. It is most of the time allow us to interact with other people and make to build a relationship. When a message is being transmit through the TV channel it is obviously tells us what is involving here. Listening is main concern for TV show, drama, movie, etc. we also know that the combine communication skills involved are listening, questioning, paraphrasing, reflecting, explanation, summarising, consulting and mentioning. So a good communication happen when a person or information sender and receiver involves actively to get their needs done. Say for example when a doctor is not listen what patient is saying, he/ she might feel upset because of less attention to the client. In my work place, we are very concerning about that issue so that we feel we are providing best service to client. A good doctor-client interpersonal communication has the potential to help the patient’s emotion and facilitate better mental satisfaction of the service user.
Good listening includes learning new method of communication, tools, techniques, paying deep attention to the service users, no argument with client, paying no attention to criticism but taking it as a way of developing tactics, bilingual qualification needed and interpreter service or facilities in care setting may boosting the best images within the health and care service field.
1.3 Review the methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care.
When we see different professional are working together to get the best result for the interest of whole unit or partnership basis that kind of working relationship happen within interpersonal connection to share their views, skills, experiences, etc. here is also involving verbal, non-verbal, informal, formal communication methods to establish for the aim of job finishing. The interpersonal theory can be helpful for this case in where social learning includes social exchange of views, skills, technology there to self-indulgent satisfaction and maximising the outcome by removing the acute lack of factors. Say for example, when a doctor is talking with client with positive mind of assurance and again reassurance to patient then we can see the result is very positive as the client feeling comfortable in mind. So doctor and nurse must or other professional like support worker should engage themselves in best interconnected person while providing care to the service user. If we look at the reduction theory of communicating with client, it must tell us something about this issue which is the complete understanding about other people that develop also interpersonal skill or communication relationships. The doctor and nurse are fall in that category. In the popular video about health and social care learner in the induction session shows that an elderly patient was being neglected and given mistreatment by health and social worker staff. The care worker should have listen and help the client by hoist to place into toilet commode because she needs to use toilet. The care assistance should be given on how to take care of dementia elderly people or client
In the case of Jessie, there can be identified the doctors influential skills to have a low-esteem and stress out. Due to Jessie Lee speaking language, she was discriminate by the doctor and nurse. The hospital authority would need to address their policies and procedures to ensure that all professional understand their duty of care when providing service to client by promoting equality and diversity. The doctors should have act on under the professional code of conduct and standardise their practice in health care by showing the capability of own views, attitudes, opinion as per their practice standard. The receptionist also breach Jessie lee trust which leading her to have a bad image about hospital.
1.4 Analyse the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs.
In our health and social care study, we see the various kinds of strategies are there in practice under social and health care laws and regulations provided by the government guidance and authority. That is why; it is very important to know the entire strategies of good communication method to meet the service user demand or needs. As a care work professional we need to be able to use the variety of strategies to communicate with client. To overcome the barrier it is very important to understand, learn and be sensitive to the needs of service user preferences. For those who are in disability group of individual used specific forms of interaction such as non-verbal communication, sign language, lip reading, slang expression, choice of room or location for conversation. Strategies are in that place practicing under the care guidance policy and government authorised people. Like as visual problem are address by glass or touching them indicate where this is need to be place for their comfortableness.
So the strategies of supporting individuals include the followings:
New technique like technological development tools, singed language specialist, lip reading specialist, body expression specialist, facial expression, translator, interpreter, bilingual staff, etc. can show us the best option to practice in caring settings.
We always make sure there is no assumption, stereotyping, using jargon, slang or dialect are happening in practice of health and social care premises.
In our daily social activity, there is an existence of social, cultural, religious belief and multi-faith traditional custom practices which is following by the individual in society or community. Those factors need a great attention by care worker in the health and social care practices when carer provides service to the service user. So those are following in next lines.
2.1 Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors
Whenever we see a different ethnic service user then we need to be very careful to them in respect of their cultural values, belief, and tradition. A health care staff have a duty of care to respect all of this facts. When a cultural different are violated or ignored people react to it with anger and emotionally. In regard to the case of Jessie, the nurse did not understand her culture therefore she violated the violated the trust Jessie had in her mind. Jessie is from a Chinese cultural oriented so the facial expression is very important they may smile when discussing something sad or uncomfortable (Irespect,2014). As a health care worker it is very important to be competence in understand the way of communicating verbal and non-verbal to people of different cultural origin. Valuing diversity measure in professional health care sector will enrich our own life and to be open to other people’s life experience and it become more flexible and creative because as a care worker can imagine other people see things (Moonie,2000).
So diversity of our community should be treated in a professional manner.
2.2 Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care.
Law, charters and codes of practice is in place to ensure every procedure of caring policy to the client and also similarly followed by the care organisation. So it is a set of laws that are made by government which regulate the care settings.
An example of is the Data Protection Act 1998 controls how an individual’s personal information is used by organisation, business or the government (gov.uk 2018). Every carer is responsible of using client data in a strict way to follow the data protection principles. Confidentiality is that kind of law which is most needed policy to apply in health and care settings. i.e., computer, paper or visually audio recorded data about a client should not be disclosed to anyone without prior to the assent of the service user. As health care professional we need to follow the requirement which is protecting the patient information in safe or out of malpractices.
Low or poor understanding of law can lead discrimination and disempowerment of the service user will result into the care organisation getting bad reputation and for the care provider to close down. Understanding the appropriate codes, law, rules and charters will affect how the health services is being delivered to the public. As care worker and professional we have the duty to obey the laws and encourage, maintain safe working practices that promote choices, dignity and respect (Michie, V2007).
2.3 Analyse the effectiveness of organisational system and policies in promoting good practice in communication.
In health and social care settings must have a system to ensure principles and requirement of governance are consistently and systematically applied to promote operative policies in communication (Anon,2014). The hospital should have a proper system to ensure all the policies and code of practices are being carry out throughout the organisation. However the “Governance system of the hospital hould protect the interest of patients and service user. This includes creating an environment in which healthcare worker can meet their professional obligation” (Anon,2014). Every health care staff should be able to follow all these law and service users should be fully protected. This can be done through monitoring, spot checking and training. To be compliance to the policies and code of practices annual appraisal should be done to all care worker in that organisation. Information strategy is also important in order to get the appropriate information at the right time. The complaint channel of the organisation should be design to get the appropriate authority and it would prevent barrier of fear from the service user and consequences. In the Jessie case, the receptionist, nurse and the doctor may not get the appropriate information about Jessie which lead to communication barriers. The organisation should have taking into account the confidentiality policy whic is using the organisation should “make sure that information is only shared with the appropriate people in appropriate circumstances, care must be taken to check they have a legal basis for access to the information before releasing it”(Anon, 2014)
Therefore effectiveness should ensure the quality service to the client always.
2.4 Suggest ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care settings.
We can see there are various ways to communicate to the service user through verbal and non-verbal, use of aids such as use of sign and symbols, singed languages, written communication, pictures and use of communication technological aids. In order to improve the way a care worker can communicate they would have to a range of training and workshop. They would have to understand and apply effective non-verbal communication, they would have to be aware different cultural orientation as well.
A health care worker should always to be a active listener, clarify it and reflect to confirm what the person is saying. An bilingual staff should be very helpful for the organisation or otherwise by employing interpreter or translator can meet this issue.
All the policies, confidentiality, applying of data protection act, codes, all mandatory training is also provided to care worker. Information should be used proactively, irreversible and it should only be discuss in a suitable place that is away from others e.g. families, friends or visitor.
LO3 Be able to explore the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health and social care.
3.1 Access and use standard ICT software packages to support work in health and social care.
There is a lot of easy software designed to work correctly for the different professional. In health and social care sector we can use such as follows
? Analysing data base,
? word processor,
? monitor and
Electronic logbook, recording etc. Can be very helpful for the health care staff.
3.2Anayse the benefits of Using ICT in health and social care for the service user, care worker and care organisation.
The use of ICT in health and social care settings have so many benefits to carer, client and even for care providing organisation such as follows—
It is fast and reliable because of the efficiency apply by the care worker. It individualised care through communication and develop relationship. It also support management of resources and improve the quality of care being delivered (Hiney, G.2014). an example of software electronic health record (EHR) which can be use in a logbook writing and put all the data in a one unique system in relation to the client and care provider. Patients history, preferences and medical record such as prescriptions, pulse rate, breathing and respiration can be found in a one software. But only one things need to be very carefully about handling of the patient data so that might not have use by an unauthorised people and need to data recovery back up system in case of wiping or stolen computer.
It can potentially put your organisation at risk if you do not follow privacy protocols to an exacting degree (Systems,2014)
Many hospital use digital technology rather than films to take store and share X-ray and other clinical images. Paramedics in some places carry special adapted and robust laptops in their ambulances. Patients suffering from head and neck cacers can now benefit from electronic speech aids. Diabetic patient can use device take their reading. It also improve the drug management in the home using low tech remainders (Anon,2014).
3.3 Analyse now legal consideration in the use of ICT impact and social care.
In the application of ICT using in health and social care is under control by government law and policy. Using ICT can have an impact on us as an individual such as upper limb which is cause by poor posture, repetitive strain injury which refers to pain in the arms when working on computer and eye strain due to staying at the computer for long time. The employee have a legal duty under the Health and Safety at Work 1974 to ensure , so far is reasonably practicable the health and safety of employee( Aldeworht,2007). As an employee we should ensure that our own action do not create any health and safety risk, do not ignore significant risk at the workplace and take sensible action to report things that is not right and danger to others (Anon,2014). Personal information can be store on the computers so that data protection act 1998 are put in place to protect the client.
Computer Misuse act 1990 aimed at combating various forms of deliberate misuse of computer system (so called hacking). Penalties include fines and custodial sentences for unauthorised access (Lboro,2014). Also it we can see the Display Screen Equipment regulations 1992 aims to protect the health of people who work with DSA such as computer (HSE, 2014)
In case studies shows that poor communication can often leads to non-compliance to treatment, dissatisfaction and lack of trust in health care professional and workers.
Using different strategies to communicate to specific needs can overcome communication barriers. Legislation and code of practice are in place to protect the needs and rights of individuals and guides the way we collaborate with each other.
So it can be part of all agencies, care professional and non-professionals performances in health care have a duty to provide quality care services.