With This was also shown by students who

With reference to the previous chapter, respondents had different feelings about the effects they get from peer pressure. About (31.1%) indicated that they are always affected by peer pressure when making decisions. A good number indicated that they rarely affected (30%) and the rest of the respondents mostly affected at (32.2%) and never affected ranked at (0%) respectively. This shows that there is peer pressure even in the students’ world. This shows from the respondents that some people get affected in their decision making but how they are affected is not the same. No participant stated in the interview that they are never affected so this provides evidence that people are always affected by peer pressure in their decisions. This was also shown by students who indicated in the interviews they are always affected in decision making because they are given the freedom to make independent decisions in their day to day actions.
According to the findings, the key factor that triggers peer pressure among students was found to be social status (28.8 %,), income bracket was at (17.8%) and a small percentage of respondents associated peer pressure with political affiliation among respondents at (13.3%). Students felt that the factor that trigger peer pressure was need to belong which was at (24.4%) and (15.6%) for low self-esteem.
In matters of social status, many participants pointed out that social status affects peer pressure the most. This is because students will likely want to be part of or belong to a certain social group influenced by peer pressure. Income bracket was also found to be a key trigger of peer pressure among students at the University of Zambia because they tend to compete and compare amongst themselves. Students of different income level groups tend to isolate themselves from students who do not have money hence this brings about fights among students. Students are mixed and brought up in families making them want to be accepted and belong in a group. Just as in the family people always have blank openings which can be filled by relating and fit in somewhere with other people. Among the factors this was rebounded as majority indicted that social status was the major trigger of peer pressure among students at the University of Zambia.
However, income bracket was viewed as a significant requirement because they can participate in economic activities without having to tension. This might not always be the case because sometimes some students at UNZA join groups even when they don’t have the same income bracket. This brings conflicts because students might be influenced to even borrow money to fit in the group, one can also be influenced to buy things they cannot afford just to fit and be recognized and this may lead to parents of people keeping them be in debts just in trying to settle the bills caused by them.
During interviews, participants brought out a number of factors that trigger peer pressure apart from life style. The issue of poverty was one of the factors that participants pointed out as being the one of the triggers of peer pressure. Female students have various needs which they could not satisfy if they were from poor families, it was very feasible that some of them would fall for men’s sexual demands in order to acquire money to satisfy those needs. In the same vain some students from poor families may yield to stealing temptations when they had needs they wanted. This is in line with Ajalaand Lyiola (1988) who attributed that “students from polygamous and broken homes have a tendency to be social deviants due to lack of adequate care and support.”
The other factor that participants brought out that trigger peer pressure was technology. Through social media it is found that students try to imitate what they hear and see on media such Facebook, instagram, twitter and many more. It was also found that most students, especially those from poor families, would want to have friends so that they can buy expensive phones, computers so that they can have access these facilities even though such friends were bad or good. As a result it was observed that time spent on viewing such facilities was greater than studying. This is in line with Schaefer (2005) who points out that “the impacts of technology on socialization amongst students have more time spending on using media per day on different activities than reading.”
During the interviews, it was found that most students join peer-groups through ignorance, these students indulge in so many bad things such as drinking beer, smoking and have sex with different men. It was also discovered that students engage in all these things in order to find money to buy different things they admire from friends. Hence, the results are that most of them do not do well in their academic studies. So through peer-pressure, activities such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and many others affected students’ academic performance.
Having low self-esteem can make students be in the position of being inclined to peer pressure. Self-esteem is appraisal of self-confidence and those without confidence have the habit of giving in to pressure of their fellow peers. So students with low self-esteem tend to concentration more on negative aspects like engaging in excessive beer drinking as matched to the positive qualities of their personalities. Peers affect the choices of political party to identify with, the candidate to support and whether to turn out to vote. At the University of Zambia, political affiliation triggers peer pressure among students. Since a peer group is a social and primary group of people with similar interest, age, educational background and social status they can also be very different with people from different social and economic backgrounds. This research has proven that for a person to fit in a given group they have to imitate the belief system of the group, for instance be of the same income bracket. Students tend to join groups because of the belief and love for a certain political group.
Related interests and beliefs bring students together in a group may be because they can apprehend one another better than when they share altered interests and beliefs. This makes them stay and do activities together with or without many problems or fights. This symbolized a good number of the participants and this shows how essential interests and beliefs play a fundamental role for the students in this case to come together. But most of participants that were interviewed showed that these groups affect students in a negative way.
However, it was found that lifestyle is a necessity for one to fit a group. This is vital because it makes it easier for the group to understand and to get along well with each other. This is where the members of the group are subjected to staying together because maybe the clothes they wear and the food they eat is seen to be classic. Moreover, this can somehow be a problem if one does not share the groups’ lifestyle. For instance they look for clothes thought to be complying with the groups’ lifestyle which in turn drain them economically. According to the answers given by participants in an interview, it was noticed that lifestyle is another factor that trigger peer pressure.
In additional, under factors that trigger peer pressure, it was found that besides life style, need to belong and poverty, participants pointed to sexual desires, stress, ignorance, anxiety, protection, globalization, technology, not being assertive, lack of proper guidance, broken homes as other factors that cause peer pressure among students at the University of Zambia. However, it has been found that despite of two factors that trigger peer pressure reviewed in the literature, they are actually a number of other factors that trigger peer pressure among students at the University of Zambia.


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