Why does conflict occur between people and countries? There are many responses to this rather broad question. To begin with, conflict may occur for even the slightest reason possible such as miscommunication and disagreements. On the other hand, conflict can ensue from more serious issues that developing countries are currently facing such as limited resources, poverty, power and leadership struggles. In addition, Conflict can be defined as a sort of clash resulting from differences in beliefs, actions, and values. It can occur between one or more group. Moreover, conflict is an ongoing process it can either be prevented or endless as every human being has a longing for power which arises from greed and ambition. On the contrary this essay will outline the causes of conflict and the ways in which it can be prevented, but before doing so the theory of Classical Realism, neorealism along with Theorist Niccolò Machiavelli and Kenneth Waltz will be discussed.
According to the Realist theory, the human nature is profoundly analysed in order to understand why and how conflict occurs. Based on a realist view it is shown that human selfishness is the main characteristic of human nature. Niccolò Machiavelli’s “Italian politician” theory of politics stated that humans are arrogant, cruel, and selfish. He argued that political life is encouraging diplomatic leaders to control a country through the use of manipulation, violence, and brutality. In addition, from a realist perspective human beings are compelled by fear, hope, and most of all lust for power. Hope in the case of creating everlasting peace, in which this is a utopian mirage. As a matter of fact, Classical realist argue that there will be no difference in the human egoistic trait as it is a permanent condition therefore conflict is infinite. According to Kenneth Waltz a US International relations theorist and neorealist. He stated that human nature is what leads to war not to mention that forcing states to perform in a certain way will itself help to encourage conflict.