Whilst exercising your body starts to sweat and burn calories. These physiological factors are also vital to your body maintaining a state of homeostasis. Homeostasis is defined as a constant, steady environment despite external changes, such as exercise. Exercise affects your body temperature, blood oxygen levels, sugar levels and water level. Your body uses a negative and positive feedback system to preserve normal temperature and water levels, so you can keep exercising. Eat properly and drink plenty of fluids to help your body maintain homeostasis.
During exercise, your body needs to maintain a constant supply of oxygen in your cells to support your working muscles, which might need 15 to 25 times more oxygen than when they are resting. Consequently, you breathe faster during exercise. The harder you exercise, the more rapid your breathing rate becomes. This also helps release carbon dioxide. Excess carbon dioxide can lead to a build-up of lactic acid, which may impair your performance. For every extra breath of oxygen in, you exhale out excess carbon dioxide.
Your cardiovascular system oversees delivering blood to your muscles and keeping your body temperature normal. During a workout, the muscles you’re exercising need more oxygen. Your body responds by increasing the amount of blood your heart is pumping. Hormones are released to signal your heart rate to increase so you can deliver more oxygenated blood to where you need them most. As your blood vessels dilate, you will also experience an increase in blood pressure.
As your body converts glucose into energy during exercise, it produces heat as a waste product. This extra heat can rise your body temperature above the typical 37 degrees Celsius. To maintain homeostasis, the blood vessels in your skin dilate to allow more blood flow to the surface of your body where it disperses the heat. The evaporation of sweat and breathing out warm air also serve to help cool your body and help maintain a body temperature.
Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose as our body needs it. It stores extra glucose as glycogen in your liver. When blood glucose levels drop during exercise, you can experience weakness and dizziness, so you rely on glycogen stores to increase your blood glucose levels. Consume foods with easily-digested carbohydrates and a little protein to have as less fat stored in your body.