v:* the scene of an accident either

v:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} o:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} w:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);} The discontentment of people against certain policies of government no doubt may lead to all forms of grievances, which may be expressed or unexpressed. Where it is expressed, it takes the forms of protest such as strikes and demonstrations; which are either organized or unorganized.

Social movement on the other hand refers to an organized group of people with the major goal of bringing about a purposive change in the society. The major targets are the societal and/ or governmental policies, which are considered repugnant and detrimental to the generality of the people or a cross section of the society.For example, the various feminist groups across the globe are organized groups of articulate women seeking a major shift in governmental policies concerning womenfolk. The groups have endured over the years and have made landmark achievements in this regard. Using various strategies /methods such as organized protests, lobbying, petitions, rallies, etc., they have been able to arm-twist the hands of government to effect some improvement in the life of the female gender. A crowd may be a group of individuals gathered at the scene of an accident either helping victims or merely watching the incident.

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Crowds usually have no organized activities or a pre-meditated agenda. There is no organized structure or a set of rules and regulations guiding the conduct of members, who may not even recognize the existence of others in the crowd.  However, when such a crowd goes violent in their operations, then we are likely to witness a ‘mob’ A riot unlike a mob may not necessarily have a clear goal. Such a frenzied crowd may be expressing its grievances over some forms of injustice that may have been piling up for some times.

Such riotous actions are usually sparked off by minor events/incidents and this may bring about a social eruption engulfing lots of property and even people where it was sparked off by feelings of hatred, it sometimes end up with destruction of lives and property. A major difference between a mob and riot is the goal and the duration of action Social movements as a product of collective action do sensitize the people on the current issue and activate the interest of the people towards it. Through this, it generates debates on the issue and popularizes it to effect the designed change. The change, which is the ultimate of social movements, could be achieve either partially or in full depending on the commitment, the strategies and methods employed by the group as well as the resistance posed by the opposing forces.

This explains why every social movement must be armed with an ideology. The leadership must be well organized to carry the people along to orientate them towards a change of the social system. The leadership helps weigh the pros and cons of each of the methods before embarking on it but whatever technique adopted must be with the ultimate aim of achieving its goal.There are many social movements across the globe depending on the people’s desire for change or resistance against certain policies. Some do seek gradual changes in the operations while some desire radical changes depending on the wishes and aspirations of their members. It is on this basis that scholars have classified social movements according to their motives and modes of operations The revolutionary social movements, going by its name seeks a total overhaul of the system. This group usually finds fault with the existing order of things and seeks very radical changes. Macionis and Gerber made reference to the Nationalist Movement in Quebec as an example of a revolutionary movement for The redemptive social movements, just like the revolutionary social movement also seek radical changes but in their area of focus.

They also seek changes in a particular area that is of interest to them. The reformative social movements are out to advocate for reforms that would benefit the whole society. At times they could also seek the maintenance of the existing pattern where is it envisaged that a change maybe inimical to their growth and development. They are therefore seen as progressive as they do not seek a total disruption of the system but operate within the existing systemposes no serious threat as it only narrow itself to a small part of the population.

The changes they social seek are very limited. This social movement concerns itself primarily with specific individuals such as those within sexually active population age bracket. For example, they seek a change in their sexual behavior especially as it relates to birth control. Resistance movements= bear close semblance to the counter movements as it concern itself with building resistance to certain social, cultural and economic changes being witnessed. Reactionary movements mostly aim at a reversal of the existing social change. For this reasons it has been tagged regressive movement.

Other forms of movements include women movement that keep on advocating for a change in the status of women in societal affairs such as increased participation in governance, economic empowerment and other repugnant practices against women especially as it relates to widowhood, women battering, etc.


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