TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM MANAGEMENT
ECOTOURISM MANAGEMENT II (ECQ200T) ECONOMICS
SURNAME AND INITIALS: MASANGO SE
STUDENT NUMBER: 216962494
DUE DATE: 25 SEPTEMBER 2018
TOC o “1-3” h z u Description of Destination PAGEREF _Toc525486811 h 3Services offered PAGEREF _Toc525486812 h 4Sector PAGEREF _Toc525486813 h 5Sources of finance PAGEREF _Toc525486814 h 6Environmental Economics PAGEREF _Toc525486815 h 7Summary PAGEREF _Toc525486816 h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc525486817 h 10References PAGEREF _Toc525486818 h 11
Description of DestinationThe Golden Gate National Park
Golden Gate Highlands National Park was established in 1963. Its name was derived from the brilliant shades of gold cast by the sun on the sandstone cliffs. This national park was created to protect the sandstone rocks which were once very important to the Bushmen.
The park’s features are its golden and orange-hued, eroded sandstone cliffs and outcrops, especially the brand way rock. Another feature is the fact that there are many caves and shelters displaying san rock paintings. Guests can view the bushman cave paintings that are well preserved. Golden Gate is a highlight for visitors to the province; hence it is the only national park in Free State.
It is located in the Free State province near Lesotho border. Set in the valley of the Little Caledon River, the park is most noted by the great scale of the towering sandstone parks and ridges that back onto the ramparts of the Lesotho highlands to the south. The Golden Gate National Park is central to Johannesburg, Durban and Bloemfontein.
Vegetation in the Golden Gates Nature Reserve consists of wooded ravines, gullies and grasslands. It has various rare and indigenous flowers that include the Arum Lily, Watsonials, Fire Lilies and Red-Hot Pokers. Cathedral Cave has one of the last refuges of the rare Bearded Vulture and the bald Ibis that breeds once a year. The most noticeable animals in the park are Zebra, Black Wildebeest, Eland, Blesbok, Springbok, Mangooses and the threatened Oribi. The park have over hundred bird species and more famous for the beauty of its landscape than for its wildlife.
Breathtaking scenery: The Golden Gate National Park is the best escape if you want to stretch your legs, breath fresh mountain air and let nature lift up your soul and leave you with high inspiration with endless horizons, overlooking the last beauty that is South Africa.
Adventure: To be able to feel a part of the awesome scenery, visitors can do some white-river raff ting or hiking up the mountains.
Wildlife: Since this is a national park, you will obviously get a chance to spot some of the wildlife animals.
Culture: Visitors who are looking for South African culture can visit the Basotho Cultural Village where they will be experience the hospitality and learn about the traditional art, crafts and ways of life of the Basotho people.
History: This is where the evidence of dinosaurs’ species existence was found.
Activities that are offered are nature trails, swimming, biking, mountain climbing and hiking, river rafting and horse riding.
Accommodation in the park can be the hotels, camps and the rondavels (round huts).
Golden Gate Highlands National Park is under the public sector of tourism which is the largest industry in the world. The national park is identified as the public sector because it is controlled by national, state or provincial, and local government. It is the part of the economy that is composed of public services such as infrastructure (public roads, water supply, electricity, etc.) and health care. Tourism is regarded as the growth industry in South Africa as it is suited to adding value to the country’s natural, cultural and other resources.
The aim of this sector is to provide services that have significant public benefits and economic development in a particular area, for example, the Basotho Cultural Village inside Golden Gate where the community gets an opportunity to sell their traditional products and gives pride to the Basotho people while encouraging natural and cultural preservation. The methods that this sector uses are the projects which are public sector-financed, projects which are jointly financed by the public and private sectors, and private sector investment which are eligible for public sector investment incentive grants like the Golden Gate Park Traffic Safety Project which improve the safety of all park users. The park also has the people and conservation division which ensure that the natural and cultural heritage of the park is the pride and joy of everyone and also creates connection between the daily working rangers and the people. People and Conservation encourages understanding, support and participation particularly amongst neighboring communities and young people.
Sources of financeOperating profits: The organization get funds from the entrance fee that people spend when they come inside and money they spend on services offered inside the park. The profit is very rare in public sector since they mostly run for motive other than profit.
Taxation and government borrowing: The organization gets funds from tax that is collected by the government to support the park and help it develop as it is an important value of nature and conservation in the country. Usually national parks cannot sustain themselves without government funds.
National lotteries: Provide funds that benefit leisure and tourism through health, education, environment, sport, arts and heritage.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Is where governments contract a private company to finance, design, construct, operate and maintain a project in return for future income. The finance for such includes funding manager for insurance.
Government grant: A government grant fund is the money that the government gives to the business without expecting payback. This money is usually included in government budget.
Environmental EconomicsExternalities likely to affect the organization
Air pollution: as there are mines and other human activities that causes air pollution the animals and plants are affected as nature is affected a whole. As the community and camping tourists make fire that produce smoke and the gas coming out of moving cars causes air pollution.
Tourists: it may have negative impacts such as the damage to landscape; it may be litter, erosion, fire and vandalism caused tourists. Usually tourists that go for hiking are the one littering although sometime the litter can be blown by air to the park.
Wildlife management: the areas surrounding the park are developed for living space, agriculture and mining which may disturb the natural environment, behavior, growth and habits of animals. The building of hotels and rest camps in the park and the mines surrounding the area that causes pollution.
Foreign invaders: there are species that do not belong in the park (alien species) such as insects and plants which may cause destruction in the park as they may damage some plants and cause animal diseases. This species get to the park through boats or airplanes when importing other species like snakes. Species such as Monterey pine, blue gum eucalyptus, Monterey cypress, black acacia, thoroughwort, cotoneaster, Himalayan blackberry, tall fescue, European Harding grass, gorse and cape weed found in the Golden Gate Park are a threat to the biodiversity.
Climate change: affect the animals and plant in the park if it’s not normal and it can also control the amount of tourists in the park as summer represent peak season in the Free State province. The snowfall in the east of Free State in 2015 affected most of the vegetation although most people were happy about it, in areas next to the east like the national park, it indicated bad weather to the plants and animals that are not adapted to such environments.
Water issues: if there is a lack of water or drought in the area the national park can also be affected. The levels of drought that have been rising in the Free State province from 2013 to 2017 have affected most animals and plants including livestock of the local people.
Local environmental impacts
Water resources: The water is overused for hotels, swimming polls and personal use of water by tourists. This results in water shortage and degradation of water supplies.
Land degradation: The increase of tourism construction and recreation facilities decrease important land resources like minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetland and wildlife and also affect the landscapes.
Pollution: Tourism can cause pollution like any other industry. It can cause air pollution, noise, solid waste and littering, release sewage, oil and chemical.
Physical impacts of tourism development include:
Construction activities and infrastructure development: The development of facilities such as accommodation, water supplies, restaurant and recreation can cause soil erosion and can lead to land degradation and loss of wildlife.
Deforestation and unsustainable land use: Can cause disturbance and erosion of the local ecosystem.
Solutions incorporating the sustainable development goals
Catalyzing and supporting global efforts to expand and effectively manage systems of protected areas.
Recognizing and mainstreaming protected areas as natural solutions to global challenges, such as climate change, land, degradation, food and water security, health and well-being.
Raising awareness and educate people to ensure sustainable development goals.
Creating policies that ensure the protection of nature.
Implement appropriate social protection systems and promote sustainable use of the ecosystems.
Promote sustainable agriculture to achieve food security and increase productions that help maintain ecosystems.
Increase investment in rural areas in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity.
Ensure sustainable and availability of water to all.
Conserve and manage the sustainable use of land resources for sustainable development.
Reduce inequality by promoting peaceful societies, provide access to justice and build effective accountable institutions at all levels.
SummaryThe Golden Gate National Park was created to protect the sandstone rocks which were very important. People visiting the park can do activities like nature trails, mountain climbing and hiking. The park is under the public sector which is controlled by national, state or provincial and local government. The major externalities likely to affect the park are pollution, climate change, water issues and foreign species invaders. The local environmental impacts affecting the park are water resources, land degradation, pollution and the physical impacts of tourism development like the construction which leads to deforestation and removal of other vegetation.
ConclusionThe natural park protects and conserves nature, allowing people to experience and explore nature in different ways through services offered in the park such as hiking, biking and horse riding. The aim of this public sector is to provide services that have public benefits and economic development.
Referenceshttps://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/natural_solutions_-_sdgs_final_2.pdf . Accessed 20 September 2018
https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/09/how-achievable-are-the-sustainable-development-goals/. Accessed 20 September 2018
http://biodiversityadvisor.sanbi.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/2.-WadziM_BIMP-14-august.pdf . Accessed on 20 September 2018
BIBLIOGRAPHY South African Nature Reserve. (2017, February 4). Retrieved May 20, 2018, from Siyabona Africa: http://www.nature-reserve.co.za
D.A Fennel. (2015). Ecotorism. New York: Routledge.
Klopper, Terblanche Elliott;. (2015). Marketing. Cape Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa.
Thea Grobbelaar. (2014). Make the most of your time in South Africa. Cape Town: MapStudio.
I hereby declare that this assignment is my own work and that all the sources that I have consulted and quoted have been acknowledged and adequately referenced.