Title: The time for the re-enactment of a divorce law into the Philippine Law.
The Philippines is now the only nation in the world that does not allow most of its residents (though Muslims in the Philippines have the right to divorce) to divorce, except Vatican City, an ecclesiastical sovereign city-state, which has no procedure for divorce. Whilst we acknowledge relative divorce or coined as legal separation under our Family Code, this has not provided us an absolute divorce except for Muslims and Filipinos whose spouses received a divorce decree, capacitating them to remarry. Before the Spanish colonization and Japanese occupation absolute divorce is already legally and widely practiced. The thesis argues the reintroduction of the divorce law into Philippine law on a legal and rights based approached. It argues that is now the time to have divorce to protect and strengthen the family; it is legal; in accordance to our constitution and in compliance with the international human rights. This thesis seeks answers to the inadequacies of our existing legal framework on nullity, annulment, and legal separation; it is one the solutions to decrease domestic violence and to protect the children from pain and agony from their parents irreconcilable differences; and not having divorce law is a failure on upholding our own constitution.

The Philippines is one of the world’s largest archipelago nations. It is situated in Southeast Asia in the Western Pacific Ocean. Its islands are classified into three main geographical areas – Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao , composed of 7,100 islands and according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the World Bank, as of 2017, had a population of at least 100 million; populated by 51.9 million women and 52.9 million men . Of these figures, more than 34.7 million are single while roughly 32 million are married . Together, they make up a predominantly Roman Catholic population . Under the 2018 United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Index, the country is in the medium human development category ranking 113 out of 187 countries and territories . The Philippines has a constitutional, democratic and republican government . Philippines is a partner to a number of international human rights treaties and “adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations. ” Despite the predominance of Roman Catholicism in the country, the inviolability of the separation of the church and state is recognized.
Philippines was a Spanish colony from 1521 until the Philippine revolution and declaration of independence in 1898. As a result of more than 300 years of Spanish colonization, Spanish influence is very evident in the Filipino culture. The influences are apparent particularly on the language, cuisine, and religion of the country. The views of the Roman Catholic Church weigh heavily over the customs and norms of Filipinos; they account for the many conservative laws in the country and the absence of policies that permit or regulate such matters as abortion , contraception , and divorce. Divorce was recognized in the Philippines before the enactment of the Civil Code of the Philippines (Civil Code) . At present, it is not recognized in the country save for some exceptions . The Philippines and Vatican City are the only remaining states in the world without divorce.
Divorce is the “legal termination of a marriage by a court in a legal proceeding, requiring a petition or complaint for divorce by one party.” It is the “legal separation of man and wife, effected, for cause, by the judgment of a court, and either totally dissolving the marriage relation, or suspending its effects so far as concerns the cohabitation of the parties. Atherton v. Atherton, 181 U. S.155, 21 Sup. Ct. 544, 45 L. Ed. 791; Miller v. Miller, 33 Cal. 355; Cast v. Cast, 1 Utah, 112.The dissolution is termed “divorce from the bond of matrimony,” or, in the Latin form of the expression, “a vinculo matrimonii” the suspension, “divorce from bed audboard,” “o mensa ct thoro.” The former divorce puts an end to the marriage; the latter leaves it in full force. 2 Bish. Mar. & Div.” It can also refer to termination of a marriage that is without any fault on the part of either parties and without “need to find out if any misconduct occurred.”There are two kinds of divorce: (1) absolute divorce or divortio a vinculo matrimonio, and (2) relative divorce or divortio a mensa et thoro . The first is used to refer to dissolution or “divorce from the bond of matrimony” and the latter is used to refer to the “suspension or divorce from bed and board.” Marriage bonds are severed under absolute divorce while they subsist under relative divorce or legal separation .
The type of divorce argued for in this discussion is absolute divorce as differentiated from relative divorce or legal separation. The term ‘divorce’ as used refers to absolute divorce unless otherwise indicated.
The Family Code of the Philippines (Family Code) provides for three remedies on the dissolution or suspension of marriage bonds: nullity, annulment, and legal separation. Unlike divorce, the grounds for nullity and annulment must exist before or at the time of the celebration of marriage to terminate marriage bonds. In contrast to divorce, legal separation merely grants spouses the right to live separately from each other but does not dissolve marriage bonds .
Gabriela Women’s Party has been pushing for the legalization of divorce since the 13th Congress, a party-list General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action (GABRIELA) which is a national coalition of women’s organizations. Women’s groups claim that petitions for declaration of nullity of marriage, annulment, and legal separation are inadequate options for an abused spouse . They maintain that spouses who want to separate from each other and terminate their marriages are met with rigid limitations in the present laws’ response to the countless causes of failed marriages. These groups claim that remedies of declaration of nullity and annulment do not cover the problems that occur after the celebration of the marriage while legal separation does not put an end to marriage . The lack of divorce is questioned as a “discriminatory policy and religious imposition” on non-Muslim Filipinos.
On the other hand, opposition led by the Catholic Church treat the concept of divorce with disdain and contempt primarily because it destroys Filipino families. “The fact that we’re one of the last few countries without a divorce law until now speaks volumes about us as a nation. No doubt, those who associate divorce with being progressive would laud our legislators who are currently raring to pass a divorce bill in Congress. With due respect to them, we beg them to make room for more reasoned debates on the issue. Since they act as representatives of the people who elected them in office, we humbly suggest that they submit their personal opinions to a further consultation with their constituents. Perhaps they can also consult experts in various fields in order to consider the many implications of the issue, not just on families but on the Philippine society as a whole.”
Why is there no divorce law in the Philippines?
“Across the globe, the Philippines and the Vatican are the only states without divorce but allow the annulment of marriages. The Vatican is an independent state headed by the pope, who also heads the Catholic Church. The Philippines, meanwhile, is a predominantly Catholic country. Majority of couples also opt to marry in church”.
I see this is the biggest hurdle why we still do not have a divorce law. We are still under the influence of religion as such as being a shackle for our law makers to take a more liberal approach in looking into this matter. Predominantly Catholics and Christians believe in biblical verse “So then they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has yoked together, let man not separate”.
They view the negative effects of divorce as it destroys the family which is the nucleus of our society. What we are missing out is that there is also the other side of the coin. If there is a negative side, why are we not looking into another perspective and look into the positive side of it?” If a marriage is in high conflict and creating a toxic living environment for the children, exposing them to violent actions like physical and or verbal abuse, a divorce can be a positive for the children being exposed to such behaviour. It is unhealthy for children to witness their parents showing each other a lack of respect and decency. Children that are victims of domestic violence are more likely to grow up and engage in acts of domestic violence towards their family.” Being forced to stay in a failed marriage because the society tells you that the right thing to do. It will not help you as a person in the long run. “Choosing to stay together for the children only increases this tension and stress. Feeling trapped makes you feel like a caged animal, and it does not give you as much of a chance to be the attentive parent you want to be ” In this you will not be able to focus on proper parenting.”Divorce can be complicated, messy, and very emotionally taxing. Once you survive the transition, you will feel alive with the confidence that you made a decision to better your life. This esteem will lead to a sense of empowerment and deep self-knowledge that you are in control your happiness” . According to SWS surveys Filipinos now are taking are more liberal approach in the issue of divorce, The poll, conducted on December 8 to 16, 2017, showed an average 53 percent of adult Filipinos nationwide agree with the statement, “Married couples who have already separated and cannot reconcile anymore should be allowed to divorce so that they can get legally married again.”
In Conclusion:
House Bill 7303 aims to make divorce more accessible to a wider range of couples seeking liberty from irreparable marriage.
It provides that the “State shall assure that the court proceedings for the grant of absolute divorce shall be affordable and inexpensive, particularly for court assisted litigants and petitioners.”

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Title: Assessment of blood pressure response to isometric hand grip exercise test in young adult students with parental history of hypertension- A cross sectional study
Background: It is found that 30 to 40 % of subjects with primary hypertension have genetic predisposition to acquire hypertension in future. They exhibit characteristic trait of autonomic hypervigilance with sympathetic overactivity. Static exercises can be used as a physical stressor to unmask the inherited vascular reactivity in these individuals.

Objective: Assessment of sympathetic overactivity in children with parental history of hypertension and compare it with controls of normotensive parents
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 120 first year MBBS students of Jawahar Lal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi from January 2017 to December 2017. Institutional human ethical committee clearance was obtained prior to the study. The inclusion/exclusion criteria was defined & written informed consent obtained from participants. Students with parental history of hypertension were divided as study group (n=60) & students with no parental history of hypertension was grouped as control (n=60). Written informed consent from participants was obtained. The anthropometric and physiological parameters were recorded in them & sympathetic overactivity was assessed by rise in blood pressure response to IHG exercise test.

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Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using student t-test & p value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant.

Results: In the present study all the basal physiological parameters were high in study group and difference on pulse rate was statistically significant. The blood pressure response to static exercise was exaggerated in students with parental history of hypertension, indicative of sympathetic overactivity & possibility of acquiring future hypertension in these genetically susceptible individuals.

Conclusions: The present study concludes that normotensive children of hypertensive parents show sympathetic overactivity in the form of raised DBP and SBP on IHG exercise test .The latter is an age old standard noninvasive test used to unmask sympathetic dominance in genetically susceptible individuals.

Keywords: Autonomic hypervigilance, Sympathetic overactivity, Isometric hand grip exercise test,
Introduction: Hypertension is an emerging public health problem all over the globe. It is estimated to affect around one-quarter of adult population and is projected to be the leading cause of death by 2020 worldwide. Realizing the burden of the disease, World Health Organization (WHO) in the year 2013 declared “hypertension” as “World Health Theme” on World Health Day (7th April 2013) and also labeled hypertension as a “silent killer”.1,2 WHO defines hypertension as sustained rise in blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure ( DBP) of ? 140 mmHg and ?90 mmHg respectively (as per Joint National Committee, JNC 7th report ,2003) .3,4
The normotensive children with genetic susceptibility exhibit trait of unbalanced Autonomic nervous system (ANS) with early parasympathetic attenuation & sympathetic overactivity.5 They also exhibit abnormal characteristics like metabolic dysfunction (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia), exercise induced rise in blood pressure, high basal blood pressure (hypertension) etc which causes cardiovascular and neurocognitive complications.6,7 Isometric hand grip test is an age old standard noninvasive test & act as a physical stressor to reveal the sympathetic dominance in genetically susceptible individuals.8
The present study was undertaken to assess sympathetic dominance in children of hypertensive parents and compare with children of non hypertensive parents.

Material and methods: The present cross sectional study was carried out over a period of one year, between january 2017 to december 2017 in the Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belagavi. Ethical clearance from institutional human ethical committee was obtained. Total 120 students were recruited in the study after collecting sociodemographic details and history of parental hypertension in them. Following written informed consent from the participants & defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, normal healthy students between age 18-24 years were included in study group and students with h/o cardiovascular disease, on chronic medication for chronic illnesses, h/o alcohol and smoking habit and h/o drugs intake that modify sympathetic system were excluded.
Study group comprised of students with parental history of hypertension and control group comprised of children with no parental history of hypertension. The students were advised to have light beakfast, avoid tea/coffee 2-3 hours prior to the test & report to lab by 9:30am. Anthropometric details like height using krups weighing scale in centimeters, weight in Kg’s using stadiometer and BMI was calculated using quetlet’s equation. The classification of BMI followed was 9:
Normal BMI range = 18.5 to 24.9
Overweight=25.0 to 29.9
Obesity = ?30.0
Severe obesity = ?35
Basal pulse rate & blood pressure were measured with subjects in sitting position following 10 minutes. BP was recorded by manual method using Standardized mercury sphygmomanometer (diamond deluxe BP apparatus, Pune, India).

Isometric hand grip test 10: BP response to sustained handgrip i.e., Handgrip Dynamometer Test (IHG) using Jammar hand grip dynamometer inc.USA manufactured by INCO Ambala with values of 0-60 kgs was used to measure sympathetic response. Subjects were briefed about the instrument before conducting the test. Baseline BP was recorded from non dominant hand. The hand dynamometer is spring type with two needles, one remains at zero mark and the other needle depicts the maximal voluntary contraction i.e., values are b/n 0 to 60 kg. The subjects were advised to compress the handle of dynamometer with maximum effort using dominant hand for one minute. Three such readings were recorded with 30 sec gap in between to prevent fatigue. Mean of the three readings was calculated and T max was obtained. Thirty percent of the T max was calculated. Now the subjects were asked to maintain the same i.e., 30% of the T max for a period of 2 minutes. During these 2 minutes the BP was recorded from non dominant hand & second reading was taken following rest of 5 min after exercise.
Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using student t-test & p value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant.

Results: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess sympathetic reactivity in first year medical students between 18 to 24 years of age group with parental history of hypertension and compared it with students of non hypertensive parents. Total 120 students participated in study, out of which 60 identified with parental history of hypertension were categorized in study group and 60 students with normotensive parents were included in control group. Out of 60 students in study group, 81.67% students had parental history of hypertension in either of a parent & 18.33% students had a history of hypertension in both the parents. The two groups were almost identical on age, height parameters .Weight and BMI scores were comparatively high in study group than control group (Table 1). The resting state physiological parameters were high in study group and difference on pulse rate was statistically significant (Table 2).The DBP and SBP response to IHG test were statistically significant in study group(Table & graph 3 ; Table & graph 4) and both the parameters almost reached baseline in two groups after 5 minutes rest.

Table 1: Comparison of demographic and anthropometric measurements between study and control group
parameters Study group (n=60) Control group (n=60) p-value
Age 18.95 ± 1.13 18.83±0.87 0.5261
Height (cm) 164.12 ± 8.38 166.38 ± 8.99 0.156
Weight(kg) 64.60 ± 13.10 63.13 ± 13.41 0.546
BMI 24.03 ± 4.17 22.75 ± 3.80 0.081
Table 2: Comparison of baseline physiological parameters between study & control group
Baseline physiological parameters Study group (n=60) Control group(n=60) P-value
PR 82.50±8.90 79.07±8.45 0.032*
DBP 74.65±5.86 74.33±7.80 0.802 SBP 111.10±10.50 109.80±11.23 0.514
*p< 0.05
Table 3: Comparison of DBP response on isometric hand grip test – IHG test in study and control group
DBP (mmHg) Study group(n=60) Control group (n=60) P-value
Baseline 74.65±5.86 74.33±7.80 0.802
During IHG 98.90±11.26 89.52±9.88 0.0001*
After 5 Minutes 75.40±6.95 73.20±5.52 0.058
Graph 3: Comparison of DBP response on Isometric hand grip test – IHG test in study and Control group

Table 4: Comparison of systolic blood pressure response on isometric hand grip test– IHG test in study & control group
SBP(mmHg) Study group (n=60) Control group(n=60) P-value
Baseline 111.10±10.50 109.80±11.23 0.514
During IHG 142.73±17.40 129.37±12.73 0.0001*
After 5 Minutes 110.17±9.31 108.60±11.03 0.402
Graph 4: Comparison of systolic blood pressure response on isometric hand grip test– IHG test in study & control group

The present study was carried out to assess sympathetic response to IHG exercise test in children of hypertensive parents. The BMI score, resting PR & BP was higher among children with parents history of hypertension. Many studies have found significant rise in BMI & SBP in the genetically susceptible individuals who inherit these traits as recessive inheritance from either or both parents suffering from hypertension.11The underlying mechanism was explained on the basis of increased sympathetic activity in these children with high plasma catecholamine levels before exercise.12 The existing vasoconstriction & retention of sodium due to increased renal sympathetic activity is further exaggerated by high BMI.13
In the present study there was statistically significant increase in DBP & SBP during isometric handgrip-test. Rise in systolic & diastolic blood pressure with hand grip dynamometer is an indicator of increased sympathetic activity.14 The increased afterload to the heart due to constriction of blood vessels in exercising muscles and increased peripheral vasoconstriction mediated through adrenergic receptors of sympathetic nervous system is responsible for rise in DBP during IHG exercise. The muscle sympathetic nerve activity, which is under the control of baroreflex shows reduced sensitivity among the children of hypertensive parents, which leads to increased sympathetic vasomotor tone & inturn rise in BP.8
Conclusion: The sympathetic reactivity was higher among the children with parental history of hypertension. Isometric hand grip test is an age old standard noninvasive test used to unmask sympathetic dominance in genetically susceptible individuals. Other noninvasive tests can be used to confirm sympathetic overactivity and generalize the findings to larger population. The periodic evaluation & lifestyle modification measures shall be of significant value in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease in these future health care providers
1.Mendis S, Puska P, Norrving B. World Health Organization Global Atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control (ISBN 978-92-4-156437-3).World Health Organization in collaboration with the World Heart Federation and the World Stroke Organization.2011; 3–18
2.Singh P S, Singh P K, Zafar K S, Sharma H ,Yadav S K, Gautam R K et al. Prevalence of hypertension in rural population of central India.International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2017 Apr; 5(4):1451-55
3. Shetty S S, Nayak A. Prevalence of prehypertension amongst medical students in coastal Karnataka. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences.2012 Dec; 1(6):975-80
4. Anchala R, Kannuri N K, Hira Pant, et al. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevelance, awareness and control of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension.2014; 32(6): 1170-77
5. Pal G K, Pal P, Nanda N, Lalitha V, Dutta T K, Adithan C. Sympathovagal Imbalance in prehypertensive Offspring of Two Parents versus One Parent Hypertensive. International Journal of Hypertension.2011; 1-8
6. Ramya K, Mukundan A, Maran L A. Elevated blood pressure and obesity in young adults of hypertensive parent versus normotensive parents.International. Journal of Research &Med Sciences.2016; 4(5): 1475-78
7. Anyaegbu E, Dharnidharka V et al. Hypertension in the teenager; Pediatric clinics of North.2014; 61(1):131-51
8.Garg R, Malhotra V, Kumar A, Dhar U,Tripathi Y. Effect of isometric handgrip exercise training on resting blood pressure in normal healthy adults.Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2013 June; 7(6): 996-99
9.WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies.2004; 363: 157–63
10. Ewing D J. Practical bedside investigation of diabetic autonomic failure. In Autonomic failure.Oxford University Press. Oxford 1983: 371-405
11. Ramya K, Mukundan A, Maran L A. Elevated blood pressure and obesity in young adults of hypertensive parent versus normotensive parent.International Journal of Research & Med Sciences.2016; 4(5): 1475-78
12. Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Bashardoost N. Blood pressure in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents. Indian Pediatr 2004; 41:73-7
13. Lopes H F. The pressor effect of acute hyperlipidemia is enhanced in lean normotensive offspring’s of hypertensive parents.AJH.2001; 14: 1032-37
14. Shaikh W A, Patel M, Shah H D, Nimbalkar A S, Patel N, Singh S K. Arterial blood pressure is inversely associated with vascular sympathetic reactivity( Isometric hand grip exercise) in Gujarati Indian adolescents.Indian Journal of Physiology ; Pharmacology. 2014; 54(3): 269-72


Title: How Amazon altered its strategic direction to enable growth and expansion
In 1994 after the Internet´s major growth, Jeff Bezos, the CEO of Amazon, wanted to build a “everything store” online. To position his service in people’s mind, he had to focus on a niche. He made a list of several possible categories and one interesting option popped out – the books. It was a $10 billion industry in the United States in 1994 and customers generally had “Fear of Unknown”, and since books were pure commodities and were identical whether you bought them online or in a store, this fear would be non-existent. As Bezos begun to sell the books over his platform, he delivered to all 50 states in the U.S. and over 45 countries, which brought him a weekly income of 20,000 US-Dollar. Whereas, today amazon is one of the biggest companies of the world, with 566.000 employees and an operating income of $4.1 billion.

As books started selling, Amazon wanted to establish the difference in a consumer’s mind and build sustainable competitive advantage – providing greater customer value and low prices. After several customized activities, this became unique and a stepping stone for sustainable competitive advantages for Amazon.

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Since online shopping was new to many and customers had a fear of “unknown quality”, Amazon were one of the first ones to introduce a “30-day return policy”, as well as they put users reviews into use, which was a part of reducing customers fear of failure. Later, in 1996, Bezos introduced customer personalization suggestions based on their taste. Now Amazon uses algorithms that understands the user´s needs, desires, wants and customizes the shopping experience for every individual. A survey notated that more than one-fourth of amazon’s sales came from Amazon’s personal recommendations.

Amazon has designed its activities in a way that they complement each other and reinforce one another and thus building the competitive advantage. Fit among activities reduces cost and increases differentiation. In 1998, Jeff became aware of Amazons potential to expand further and decided that Music and DVDs was his next target. Amazon could use the same value network profitably to meet needs of the customers in those new categories. The expansion went well, and later started to sell Toys and Electronics as well. Amazon slowly moved towards “The Real Everything Store”.

During the first half of the 2000s, Amazon´s size grew rapidly, and the warehousing and distribution structure became more complex. Bezos then faced the question if Amazon should be in the business of storing and distributing its products directly from the manufacturers and distributors. After a series of analysis, Bezos realized that quality of service is largely dependent on efficient distribution, and this was hard to control when you outsource. Because of this, Amazon needed to create on its own and it would be a major competitive advantage.

Amazon executives made it possible for small retailers and individuals to sell their products to Amazon´s customers. If a seller gains the order, Amazon would get the commission from the sales. As an “Professional” you pay $39.99 per month for the service, plus you have fees for each sold item, which depends on what you sell. Whereas as “Individual”, you do not have to pay a monthly fee, but instead you pay $0.99 per sold item, plus referral fees and variable closing fees.
It was clear to Bezos that one of the biggest hurdles for online shopping was the shipping cost, because customers never paid for these charges while shopping from an offline retail store. In the early 2000s, Amazon announced free shipping for orders of a hundred dollars, which was a great success, and then later brought down the free shipping to items costing more than $25. Amazon Prime was a service that included unlimited free express shipping at the price of $79 for a year. This led to the sales exploding and Amazon´s prime members came back to shop more through Amazon. Amazon made almost double the money from a prime member than the non-member. Now, in addition to express shipping, Amazon Prime provides services such as Prime Movies and Prime Music for members.

When it comes to competitors, Amazon possesses substantial resources to fight back if a competitor enters their market. Amazon will slash prices or make some other aggressive plan as it is committed to retaining the market share. When Apple began to disrupt Amazon´s music business, Bezos was taken back, and there was little he could do. He didn’t want to repeat the same mistake again and wanted Amazon from now on to disrupt their own market. Instead of competitors threatening the market, they faced the threats themselves. He chose “Books” as their first category, and the “Kindle” was born. Amazon’s team is constantly working on ways to kill their own businesses and it appears that they are in a better position to disrupt their own markets.

PESTEL Analysis of Amazon
Some of the essential political factors are that taxes and other political issues are a costly affair. Political disruption can disrupt the supply chain and result in reduced sales. Amazon is facing trade protectionism in the USA from the Trump administration that threatens the existence of foreign firms in the country, although Amazon is an American firm, considerable amount of its goods come from overseas, due to this their operations may be threatened by a possible reduction in the number of imports or tariffs to foreign imports. There are also potential trade deals between the British and American government because of Brexit. Agreements that could serve to ease Amazon´s operations in the UK as an American firm, potentially reducing import taxes and resulting in less regulations.
The economic factors have an important influence on the market and market condition. A good economic condition in a market leads to better sales and higher profits. Even in the times of recessions, the retail industry was doing well. Because of this, it’s safe to say that people will always buy regular items despite the economy. In 2015 E-retail grew with 23%, and more growth is expected. All this indicates that Amazon could see much more growth and increase in profits. Amazon has also received some criticism about reducing jobs traditionally done by human resources, reports show that the firm is actually creating more jobs that its cutting, creating additional jobs in the US and UK at new Amazon facilities. (Vandevelde, 2017)
Social and cultural trends are both important factors behind the growth of e-retail. There has been an increase of mobile technology and growth in digital technology which has been a part of boosting e-retail. Today “everyone” owns a smartphone with access to internet, social media and online shopping, due to the availability of 4G and digital technology sales of retailers like Amazon has increased. In addition to this, millennials like to do most of their shopping online. They get the best products, at the best price delivered to their doorstep, and this is only offered by e-retailers. To market itself

The concept of dynamic capabilities expands on the concepts of capabilities and resources. David Teece defined this concept as “an organization’s ability to renew and recreate its resources and capabilities to meet the needs of changing environments” (Johnson, Whittington and Regner 2017) and suggested that there were three types of dynamic capabilities: sensing, seizing and reconfiguring.

In Amazon’s case, they have several resources and capabilities that could be utilized in this manner, e.g. scale advantages, innovation processes and a vast distribution network
A good example of Amazon’s dynamic capabilities is when Amazon in 2017 decided to acquire Whole Foods, a grocery chain in the US. In terms of Teece’s dynamic capabilities Amazon sensed an opportunity arising in the grocery segment, which they previously had little experience in, and seized it by buying Whole Foods. Through this acquisition Amazon has gained entry to a potentially very lucrative market. The reconfiguring part is how Amazon now plans on integrating and improving upon Whole Foods’ concept.

Amazon’s major advantage here is their experience from their efficient large-scale delivery system and known brands i.e. Amazon Prime. Amazon has been a pioneer in building a loyalty program that actually promotes loyalty. Prime customers spend nearly 5 times more annually compared to non-Prime members (Business Insider). No other competitor has been able to build a loyalty program as unique and successful as Prime.

When we continue to look at Amazon’s reconfiguring of their capabilities they have introduced Prime into Whole Foods, Prime customers can get discounts and other benefits in the stores. In addition Amazon get an enormous opportunity to collect data on their customers, which in turn can be used by Amazon to further develop their services, for instance Prime.

An interesting example of Amazon’s innovation is the Amazon Go concept. Which is a brick and mortar store in combination with the “amazon go” app. It connects the traditional grocery store with the app, making the old-fashioned point of sales obsolete. Instead, you only walk into the store with your mobile phone in your hand, activate the app and scan the barcode which appears on your smartphone. Then all you need to do is picking up the items that want and you just leave the store when you are done shopping. No queues, no waiting, no hassle. The costs for the goods is debited immediately from your currency account after you left the store.

The continued development and reconfiguring of the Prime concept would perhaps become one of Amazon’s greatest advantage when they compete with others. Amazon gathers intimate knowledge of each customers preferences, shopping habits, prefered products and so on, if they can capitalize on this data even further and reconfigure these major resources, which are data and Prime, they can continue to develop innovative products and service offerings to their customers and further sense and seize opportunities that arise.

How Amazon manage their employees

“You can work long, hard or smart, but at Amazon.com you can’t choose two out of three.” (Jeffrey Bezos, 2007). Amazon is a company known for innovation and their management of white-collar employee may be an innovation in itself. “Its not easy to work here”, Bezos said in his 1997 letter to shareholders, and this is a reflection of the principles Amazon still use today to manage their employees, or “Amazonians”.
In interviews, former employees explained how they thrived at Amazon precisely because it pushed them past what they thought were their limits. (NYTimes, 2015) So is pushing the employees to the edge one of the main reasons behind Amazons success?
At Amazon, the workers are told to forget the “poor habits” they learned at previous jobs, they are encouraged to tear apart on another’s ideas in meetings and when they eventually “hit the wall”, there is only one solution: “Climb the wall.” This has fostered Amazon the reputation of having high employee burnout. Bob Olson, a former Amazon Books Marketing employee said in a 2015 interview with the New York Times, “nearly every person I worked with, I saw cry at their desk.” Could this cutthroat environment created by Amazon really be the way to go if you want to extract the full potential of your employees?
Workers at Amazon are expected to adhere to Amazon’s key principles for leadership. The principles are a foundation of how Amazon wants their employees to integrate with Amazon’s way of thinking. Think big, deliver results, dive deep and invent are some of their key principles. So how do they get their employees to deliver to these expectations?
One key point is the salary at Amazon. “The pay is above average, probably 1.5 times elsewhere,” said a current finance manager of the company. With high pay comes higher expectations, and with respect to benefit, a current senior business development manager said that “health insurance, time off, and 401k are all equal to or better that what I have seen in similarly sized companies.” Amazon also were praised recently for raising the minimum wage of all U.S. employees to 15 USD an hour, more than double the federal minimum wage at 7.25 USD. (CNN,2018)


Title : Monoclonal antibody manufacturing via hybridoma processing
Preface : Hybridoma processing is significant for monoclonal and polyclonal antibody formation. Monoclonal antibody origination are mentioned hither solely. Amid this scheme, standard B-cell and neoplastic cell are needed. Antibody origination is B-cell’s power. Everlasting and high spreading rate are neoplastic cell’s ability. Created antibody are definite in activity. So, same antibody making strategy is indicated as hybridoma processing.
The method incorporates six stages.
1. Vaccination: To begin with, mice is vaccinated. Thereafter antibody originates against the vaccination inside the mice’s body. Whereas,the content of the antibody is optimum inside the mice’s body,splenocytes are obtained by killing it. Splenocyte retains antibody manufacturing B-cell.
2. Co-ordination: Cancer cell is assembled with splenocyte here. Fifty percent of PEG is applied to combine those cells. A Combined cell is directed as hybridoma cell.
3. Choice: Choice is completed via HAT medium. The cells formed here are:.
*Unmixed B-cell : Which can die beneath the medium in brief time because of it’s short life.
*Unmixed cell : Which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*Hybridoma cell: It’ll live in the medium because of B-cell activity.
So, hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.
4. Screening : It is done by ELISA system. The chosen cells are shifted to ninety-six plastic well plates. One cell stays at one well. At,an underside of the plates definite antigens are adsorbed. Antibody will bind to the antigens if the cells create proper antibody. Antibody is then identified by immunoconjugate what contains 2 ingredients. One ingredient is definite for an epitope and antibody is immobilized by this component. Another one is enzyme that brings color to the well. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is surveyed by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : Afterwards of screening,with the help of interleukin-6 system antibody cloning proceeds for additional creation and growth of antibody.
6. Symbolization and savings : Antibody’s will be placed in liquid N2 media after characterization.

Figure : Hybridoma Processing.
Epilogue : Hybridoma processing is an evolution in the area of antibody creation. Antibody, manufactured via this system are needed in various ways like disease identification, therapy, research, clinical purpose and development etc.

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