This research falls within the scope of the analysis of the consequences of the mark. The consequences taken into account in this study are consumer satisfaction and loyalty. The structural model tested highlights the direct or indirect influence of different features of the brand on the two independent variables considered in this research: satisfaction and loyalty.
This project is focused on the brand and its influence on the consumer in the current market which has become a fierce market with strong competition. From the definition of the brand, its history, its constituent elements, its image and its associations, reputation and notoriety. On the other hand we examine consumer satisfaction and loyalty to the brand, their antecedents, their training, and their measurements.
The hypotheses retained in this research will be tested using several statistical tools where we will validate or reject these hypotheses
The world is evolving in a consumer economy where the consumer is faced with similar and identical products fulfilling the same functions. The search for a competitive advantage in this situation is very difficult.
The treatment of brand information to consumers differs from one individual to another. This emotional interaction between the consumer and the brand can develop a relationship with a well-defined brand that differs from one consumer to another according to certain determinants.
This is why companies are trying to move towards the relationship of their brands with consumers and therefore the creation of a brand-consumer relationship has become very necessary to have an advantageous power.
The objective of this project is to explain the brand and its influence on the consumer in today’s market which has become a fierce market with strong competition. From the definition of the brand, its history, its constituent elements, its image and its associations, reputation and notoriety. On the other hand we examine consumer satisfaction and loyalty to the brand, their antecedents, their training, and their measurements.
The hypotheses retained in this research will be tested using a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire. As a first step, we will present the collected data collection to test our research hypotheses. In a second step, we will briefly present the scales of measurement that we have selected in order to measure the impact of the brand on the fidelity and the satisfaction on the selected sample.
Our research question is “does the brand have a positive impact on the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer? ”
Chapter 1: The mark a multidimensional concept
In the present, the brand represents the main capital of the company which helps to build a strong and positive image in the eyes of consumers, because it plays a major role in the purchase decision. For this reason, this chapter begins with a first section aiming to introduce the evolution of the notion of brand, first addressing a historical perspective of the brand, then presenting the different definitions. of the mark, thus, we quote the constituent elements of the mark.
Then, in the second section, we go to the concept of “brand image”, which aims to understand this concept, to quote these neighboring concepts as well as the associations linked to the image of the brand.
1.2 The history of the brand
Brands have been around forever or almost. They were born with the first commercial exchanges in the form of rudimentary signs indelibly marked on products to authenticate their origin.
According to the etymological approach, the word brand (the brand, in English) comes from the German brand, the brand (which recalls the leatherwork of the animals of a herd with a hot iron) which gave French brand on. It appeared in the United States at the time of the use of livestock marking by a distinctive sign using a red iron.
Towards the end of the 19th century, companies started to present national brands, they favored them by advertisements. Advertisements were now often to be found in full leaflets in newspapers rather than previously published and small ads in a special section of the newspaper. This historical account of the use of markings illustrates that this practice has existed for a long time.
From the first use of the brand until the day several definitions have been presented.
1.3 The different definitions of the mark
It was at the beginning of the 60’s that the names of the brand appeared. The concept then evolved during the 80s, the idea being to strengthen the association of the name of the brand with the product. Producers wanted both to make their products easy to memorize by consumers, and to differentiate them from those of competitors. The brand is a very rich concept to which several definitions can be attributed:
• The definition of Kotler (2009): a name, term, sign, symbol or design or combination of terms that attempt to define the products or services of a seller or group of sellers and differentiate them from those of the competitors.
• The definition of David AAker (2005): “A brand is a mental box …” “A brand is like a box in someone’s head … even after a while. we know if it is heavy or light, in which room it is stored, whether it is in the room of good or bad box, the one that left you a good or bad memory.
• The definition of the brand according to The American Marketing Association (2009): “A name, a term, design, symbol or any other element to identify a seller of goods or services are distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for the mark is a registered trademark. A mark can identify a product, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the business as a whole, the preferred term is the business name.
All these definitions are linked to the important role of the brand in creating a strong image of the company by facilitating the memorization of the product in the mind of the consumer.
1.4 The constituent elements of the mark
For Kotler et al (2012) a brand corresponds to:
• a name (Findus, for example);
• a logo (for Findus, a blank text in a red flag surrounded by a white line);
• colors (red and white for Findus);
• a signature (Fortunately there is Findus);
• sometimes a character (like Mr. Clean or Pepito).
If we want to understand what a brand is, we must refer, as those who use it or who design it, to tangible and observable elements. According to Coumau et al (2005), we can group these constituent elements of the brand into six broad categories:
• The elements of communication: the salient element in this set is the name, it is one of the main doors to access the universe of the brand. Brand names are the key generators of brand equity because they affect recall and identification, they carry meaning, and they even affect attitudes towards the brand.
• Cultures of reference: It can correspond to a time, to a geographical zone or even to a particular social group.
• Reference individuals: There are three main categories of reference individuals (personalities, founders and imaginary characters).
• The services offered: -product / service
• The behaviors of the members of the organization:
-the behaviors of the employees
– the behavior of managers
– the behavior of directors
• Formulated elements: -values
-vision / Mission
All these elements have in common to represent the brand in a tangible and / or explicit way to facilitate and strengthen the relationship with the consumer.
Nowadays, with changing consumer expectations and marketing, brands have become like an experience to live. Increasingly, people are being forced to make links with brands, leading to a brand preference rather than a product preference.
To do this, brands develop a marketing concept that, over time, has become the essential brand image. Many authors have made a definition of branding.
According to Korchia (2000), the brand image is a complex multidimensional set of perceptions resulting from a memory development by the consumer.
According to Lambin (2008), “the brand image is the set of mental, cognitive and affective representations that a person or a group of people make of a brand”. And he says there are three levels of branding:
• The perceived image: the perception of the brand by the consumer.
• The true image: the true image of the brand.
• The desired image: the perception of the image that the company wishes to convey to consumers.
According to kotler (2012) A brand is all the stronger when a significant number of consumers know it (notoriety) and remember it when choosing (attention to the brand), and that these consumers generate mental associations to the strong, numerous, specific and positive brand. These branding associations have an influence on how consumers will react to their marketing and how they perceive the performance of their products.
1.5.1 Associations related to the brand image
An association with the brand is an image linked to a given brand; therefore brand associations are an image of the brand at the consumer.
According to Keller (2006), “brand associations are the other informational nodes linked to the brand node in memory and contain the meaning of the brand for consumers”.
Thus, this brand image can be associated with different elements according to which it can be positioned:
• the attributes of the product: these are tangible characteristics on which many branding positions are built. The major problem is then to find an attribute that is both necessary for consumers and has not already been dominated by competition. In addition, a positioning policy on too many attributes results in a confused image unless they are complementary.
• The intangible characteristics of products and services: it is in fact an intangible attribute. The latter is less vulnerable to attack by the competition.
• Consumers’ benefits: they correspond to the rational benefit linked to an objective characteristic of the product and to the psychological benefit that relates to the feelings experienced during the purchase and use of the brand.
• the price of the product: a brand must position itself in a price category as well as stand out from its direct competitors belonging to the same price segment.
• Uses of the mark: a mark can be positioned on its moments or modes of use.
1.5.2 The concepts related to the image of the brand
Despite the definitions of branding that may have been made by different authors, the concept remains relatively vague. This is due in particular to its close proximity to certain neighboring concepts. Six concepts related to the brand image could be identified: brand personality, brand equity, reputation and notoriety.
18.104.22.168. The personality of the brand
In his work, Aaker (1997) defines brand personality as the set of human characteristics associated with a brand. For Keller (1993) the brand personality conveys values that can be a source of expressive benefits for the individual, by constituting a means of communication in relation to others but also in relation to himself. Through his personality, the brand will have a symbolic function or self-expression.
Ferrandi (2003) gives an example of the Renault brand, which defines its personality as visionary, bold and warm. She also defines her clients as unconventional, open-minded, and practical-minded individuals. There is therefore a clear reference to the concept of brand personality and the personality of the customers or users of the brand.
Personality traits are described by five fundamental dimensions, known as OCEAN (1990), summarizing a large number of distinct and specific characteristics of personality:
• Openness (or culture / intellect): this is intellectual curiosity, imagination, openness to new experiences…
• Conscientiousness: to be trustworthy, scrupulous, orderly …
• Extraversion: the tendency to be expressive, sociable, to like to discuss …
• Friendliness: the person is sweet, cooperative, indulgent, has good character …
• neurotism (or emotional stability): the person is balanced, optimistic, calm …
22.214.171.124 Brand awareness
According to Michon (2006), the brand first comes in the form of a name that identifies a product. When the consumer encounters the product and recognizes the brand name, he remembers all the information he has stored in his memory. He will not have to make a new apprenticeship. It is this memorization of the name of the brand that is called “notoriety”.
According to Aaker (1994) brand awareness is the ability of a potential customer to recognize or remember that a brand exists and belongs to a certain product category. It differentiates four levels of notoriety:
• No recognition, also called zero degree and which corresponds to the total absence of knowledge of the mark.
• Assisted recognition, simple awareness of the existence of the brand or recognition of the brand during a purchase at a point of sale.
• The spontaneous memory or notoriety, which concerns the brands mentioned first when the consumer is asked to put a product-brand relationship.
• Top of mind, or first-rate spontaneous awareness: when the brand is the first overall recalled by the consumer.
Spontaneous awareness and first-rate spontaneous awareness are signs of the presence of a strong brand.
For Kotler (2009) brand awareness allows for higher prices, sometimes in the range of 20 to 25%. Even though competitors can copy manufacturing processes and imitate product design, it is difficult for them to capture customers’ perceptions and their previous experience, accumulated over the years, with the brand’s products. In this sense, brand strategies contribute to building a competitive advantage that grows stronger over time.
In addition to being a prerequisite for creating an image and an element involved in the purchasing decision process, brand awareness will enable the product, the company or the brand to create a reputation
126.96.36.199 The reputation of the brand
The reputation defined by Veloutsou (2009) as “the voice of the market”, that is to say the opinion attributed to potential consumers. To be successful and therefore profitable, brands should have a positive reputation.
According to Kaperfer (2007) reputation is the public’s esteem of someone or something, it is also a concept found when creating a brand, creating a brand, it is building a reputation sustainable excellence in something.
To reduce the risk, people buy a product with a good reputation due to the well-known brand instead of the product of bad reputation.
So, the brand must not only maintain its image, its values, its relationship with its customers, but also cultivate these different parameters with all consumers. Because a reputation can also be based on facts heard and collected from outside conversations.
188.8.131.52 Brand equity
For Kotler, Keller and Manceau (2012), brand equity is the value the brand brings to the products and services it covers.
This value depends on customers’ thoughts, feelings, and actions relative to the brand, as well as prices of their products, market share, and profitability.
The largely dominant definition of brand equity is that of Aaker (1997), which calls brand equity “All the assets and liabilities associated with a brand, its name or its symbols and which bring something to the and its customers because they add value or loss to products and services “.
According to Christodoulides and De Cherna tony (2010) brand equity is “A set of consumer perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviors that lead to increased utility and allow the brand to grow in volume and productivity. margins, which she could not have without the name of the brand ”
According to Keller (1993) consumer-brand equity involves consumer reactions to an element of the brand’s marketing-mix in comparison with its reactions to the same marketing mix element attributed to a fictitious or unmarked version of the product. or service. These reactions depend precisely on the customer’s knowledge of the brand, the capital and therefore the brand it owns
1.6 The perception of the brand in Lebanon
The Lebanese is a consumer who is very interested in the image of the brand he is going to buy because he loves to laugh at his friends, his family and the society around him. For this, branding is very important in Lebanon, because the Lebanese consumer is looking for the brands that have the best image among the Lebanese, and he is willing to pay more to have better quality and brands that are well known in condition. that this brand offers it a little more value than the other brands. This is where the role of companies comes to create a strong image of their brand and improve their perception among the Lebanese consumer to attract as many consumers as possible and make the most of it.
So the image of the brand and its value are very important in Lebanon. The image of the brand and its value created attract the Lebanese consumer who seeks to distinguish himself from his entourage and make the “show off” in front of everyone, for this we note that the brands that have the highest notoriety and perception and the best picture are the high-end brands and international brands. So, to succeed in the Lebanese market you have to be able to create a good image of the brand and a high value that will be appreciated by the Lebanese consumer. Branding is the main factor in creating brand value; if we have a good image we have a positive value, otherwise we have a negative value that will destroy the brand.
In this chapter we have defined the brand according to several authors, as we talked about the building blocks of the brand in addition to branding and these related concepts.
In conclusion, the brand is a contract of trust and a promise of performance that reduces the perceived risk. It facilitates and shortens the purchase process. The brand can be a carrier of values and identity for the buyer. The brand image and its related concepts help the brand differentiate itself from the competition and strengthen its relationship with its consumers.
H 1: The reputation of the brand positively influences the Lebanese consumer’s purchase decision
H 2: the reputation of the brand positively influences the satisfaction of the Lebanese consumer
H 3: the reputation of the brand positively influences the loyalty of the Lebanese consumer
H 4: Brand awareness positively influences Lebanese consumer satisfaction
H 5: Brand awareness positively influences Lebanese consumer loyalty
Chapter 2: Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty
The satisfaction and the loyalty of the customers are the reasons for being and the conditions of durability of the companies. This is why companies commit themselves daily to ensure and develop these two. By offering their customers quality products that meet their expectations, the brands hoped to replicate for many years the virtuous circle of satisfied customers – loyal customers.
In this chapter, we focus on defining consumer satisfaction and loyalty. We start with satisfaction, the quality of service and the measure of satisfaction. Then we talk about the fidelity, its levels and the antecedents to this fidelity.
2.2 Understanding customer satisfaction
To understand what we mean by customer satisfaction we present the following definitions:
• Aurier’s definition (2001): Satisfaction is defined as an abstract and cumulative construct that describes the total experience of consuming a product or service.
• Bartikowski’s definition (2004): Satisfaction is based on a comparison of the perceived performance of the service with a pre-established standard. Satisfaction is the result of a process of psychic and complex comparisons. The comparison of a theoretical value with an effective value: paradigm of confirmation / denial.
• Evrard’s definition (1993): Satisfaction is a measurable psychological state that follows a consumer experience.
In one conclusion we find that customer satisfaction is based on:
• the quality of the offer of products and services that are the basis of consumer satisfaction, a source of added value and justification of the price;
• the quality of the individual relationship with consumers, be it communication, loyalty, response to their questions or dispute resolution.
• the quality of the dialogue with consumer stakeholders, consumer associations in the first place, French and European institutions, media …
2.3 Quality of service
Research on this concept is numerous and most research has focused on the measurement of the construct and its consequences (satisfaction, loyalty, word of mouth). Quality of service is a form of attitude, similar but not equivalent to satisfaction, resulting from the comparison between consumer expectations (influenced by past experiences, word of mouth and the company’s external communication) and its perceptions of service performance. The authors of the gap model (1985) developed empirically, from a qualitative and quantitative analysis in five industries, a scale of 22 statements representative of five dimensions of quality of service:
• tangible elements: physical facilities, equipment and appearance of personnel,
• Reliability: ability to deliver the promised service with confidence and accuracy,
• helpfulness: goodwill to respond to consumers and offer a fast service,
• Insurance: competence and courtesy of employees as well as their ability to inspire confidence,
• empathy: consideration, individualized attention that the company gives to its consumers.
Three of these five dimensions, helpfulness, assurance and empathy are directly related to the attitudes and behaviors of staff.
2.4 Motivation to measure satisfaction
The reason why organizations adopt the measure of satisfaction differs from company to company.
Hermell (2001), Ray (2002), recognize that ISO 9001 version 2000 certification is one of the reasons why profit-oriented companies are interested in the concept of satisfaction and its measurement.
Moreover, referring to Ray, this ISO 9001 version 2000 standard states:
“The organization must monitor information about the client’s perception of the organization’s level of satisfaction with its requirements as one of the measures of quality management system performance. Methods for obtaining and using this information should be determined.
On the other hand, Kotler and Dubois (1993) put forward other motivations. They mark the importance of certain events such as rivalry between competitors, the abundance of the offer and the interest shown to customers. Certainly, no business can be reckless with the changes the market is undergoing and its consequences for economic stability. Whether from a perspective of allegiance to a service provider, the establishment of a close bond based on mutual trust between different actors such as the producer of the service and the customer, the satisfaction remains the element the most prominent one occupying a place of choice with the heads of companies given the effect of a client filled and its blow on the power of business of the firm.
In short, the reasons leading to the measurement of satisfaction differ from one company to another. But his job is a great advantage for a company wanting to design an offer that can target customer requirements. In addition it represents a pole of interest and the keystone for any actor wishing, on the one hand, to improve the profitability of the company, on the other hand, to encourage the taking of initiative by taking into account the accurate data that best represent reality.
2.5 Understanding customer loyalty
Nowadays, the decision-making process that precedes the purchase has become problematic for the consumer and for the companies because we notice a multiplication of the brands that offer the same characteristics with the same promises.
It is under a single form of repetition of purchases that fidelity was first defined and studied. The first definitions of brand loyalty have their origin in the theory of conditioning. It is the observation of repetitive buying behavior in a given period that is an indication of consumer loyalty.
From the work of Jacoby (1975) fidelity to the brand is defined through three characteristics:
• Effective purchasing behavior;
• That is repetitive in time;
• And resulting from a psychological evaluation reflecting a favorable attitude towards the brand.
Kotler (1994) defines brand loyalty as “giving salespeople some protection from competition and better control in planning marketing programs.”
According to Touzani and Temessek (2004) loyalty is the consumer’s commitment to the brand and the confirmation of this intention of loyalty through emotional and repetitive buying behavior.
As part of this research, loyalty would be defined as the consumer’s commitment to the brand giving sellers protection against competition. However, this commitment differs from one consumer to another according to several levels.
2.5.1 Levels of loyalty
Aaker (1994) says that we can distinguish several levels of brand loyalty, and that at each level we find a different form of branding to exploit and we encounter different marketing problems; and he ranks customers in a pyramid according to the level of their loyalty. According to this pyramid, customers can be ranked according to their brand loyalty levels; this ranking is in the following way at least faithful to the most faithful:
• The indifferent: he is a consumer who does not have a loyalty to a specific brand, and all brands on the market can satisfy him. He looks for brands that make price offers and save money. Marketing techniques are effective on this slice of consumers.
• The curator: he is a satisfied consumer who buys a precise brand by habit. He will often buy the same brand as long as he is satisfied, and he will change it to the slightest lament or dissatisfaction. You have to have good marketing to be able to persuade this consumer to change brands.
• The calculator: he is a satisfied consumer but he does not change brand because it will cost him more (cost of change). He is a consumer who has time constraints, financial constraints, etc. Marketing must make offers to offset the costs of this consumer’s change to attract him (free gifts, etc.).
• The emotional: he is a consumer who likes the brand and considers it a friend; this may be due to a brand experience that has positively impacted him and that has left traces in his mind, or just because he likes the advertisement or the name of the brand, etc. Generally, if you ask this consumer why he likes this brand he can not answer the question because he does not know.
• The activist: he is a consumer who is very loyal to the brand he uses because for him it represents a way of life and is very close to his personal values and has an important part in his daily life. Generally, this consumer is difficult to attract and persuade him to change brands, but it must be maintained by rewarding his loyalty.
In conclusion, each consumer is loyal to a brand at a certain level, this level is determined by the influence of several factors
2.5.2 Influencing factors for brand loyalty
According to several researchers in Datta (2003), fourteen factors influence brand loyalty. Those are:
• the level of involvement: the personal degree of importance of an objective for a consumer;
• the perceived level of risk: the higher the perceived risk, the greater the loyalty to the brand;
• the level of satisfaction: the difference between the product’s performance and the expectations consumers have of it
• product performance: functions, security, appearance or usability;
• the price
• promotion and advertising
• the level of attachment to the brand name: often the name of the brand is considered a positive attribute of the product;
• socio-demographic factors of the market: p. eg, age, annual income, education or occupation;
• ethnic affiliation;
• time: a consumer can be loyal for a certain period of time and not during another;
• the inventory situation: ensure a permanent presence of the brand in store to prevent consumers from buying a substitute brand;
• the 1st entrant: there is more chance that the consumer is loyal to this brand, when it is the first to enter the market.
• habits: according to Sheth, Mittal and Newman, if an individual, as they get older, uses the same brand out of habit, chances are that he will be loyal to this brand all his life;
• the history of the use of the brand: experience with the brand.
2.6 The measure of brand loyalty
There are several factors to consider when measuring consumer loyalty to a brand:
• Behavioral measures:
• redemption rates: what rate of consumers will buy the same brand a second time.
• Purchase rates: what brands buy consumers. The number of brands bought: in each specific market, how many brands buy a single consumer (eg how many brands of clothing buys a single consumer).
• The cost of change analysis: The cost that a consumer will pay if he changes the brand he buys (cost of time, financial costs, cost of quality, etc.)
• Satisfaction measurement: An unsatisfied consumer can not be considered a loyal customer. The rate of customer satisfaction can indicate the rate of loyalty to the brand.
• The preference of the brand: The affection that one bears to a brand (preference, friendship, trust, respect).
• Brands with strong involvement: Do customers like to talk about the brand? Do they recommend it? (The word of mouth rate).
2.7 The antecedents of brand loyalty
To have true brand loyalty, there needs to be a deep commitment to the brand that results from a strong brand attitude, emotional and cognitive conviction, and strong brand credibility. .
This commitment is the result of certain cognitive factors that translate into all the functional benefits that the consumer can derive from the purchase and use of the brand. The cognitive antecedents of loyalty are divided into two factors: perceived risk and trust.
2.7.1 Perceived risk
The concept of perceived risk has been linked to several themes of consumer behavior such as the choice of a point of sale, the diffusion of innovations, the acquisition of information and especially brand loyalty. Several approaches and conceptualizations have also been proposed, but the most precise and most quoted definition is that of Bauer (1960): “the behavior of the consumer carries a risk in the sense that all his actions produce consequences that he can not anticipate with certainty and some of which at least could be unpleasant “. There are two components of perceived risk:
– The perceived importance of negative consequences in case of a bad choice. This first component corresponds to the anticipated consequences resulting from the losses perceived by the consumer after the act of purchase. These losses are perceived all the more important as the investment made for this purchase is high.
– The subjective probability of making such an error. This second component of risk is related to the consumer’s uncertainty about the choice of a product and the evaluation of its attributes amon
Perceived risk, by its nature and its manifestations, influences the buying behavior of a brand on two levels. First, consumer uncertainty over the choice of a brand will affect its buying behavior. Secondly, perceived losses after the act of purchase will affect the attitude and future behavior of the consumer.
Other approaches to perceived risk exist. For example, Moulins (2004) in his work on the relationship between perceived risk and brand loyalty summarizes the types of risk into five categories:
• A financial risk related to the value of the purchased product.
• A physical and performance risk related to its use.
• A psychological risk related to the personal wishes of the decision-maker.
• A social risk compared to the reactions of those around him.
• A risk of loss of time to replace or repair the defective product.
Studies show that, regardless of the type of risk, brand loyalty is the most effective way to reduce this risk. In general, the higher the perceived risk in a product, the greater the brand loyalty.
2.7.2 Trust in the brand
Trust in the exchange partner, company, provider or brand, is widely recognized as a central variable of relationship marketing. According to Moulins (2014), trust in the other is essentially of the cognitive type, traditionally composed of three dimensions: competence or expertise, honesty and benevolence. Earlier work has shown the importance of image in building brand trust. Trust is located upstream of the relational chain, its cognitive composition, based on a speculative process, it results from beliefs about the supposed superiority of the brand. The consumer maintains the ties that bind him to the brand because he thinks that it necessarily has the technical skills (skills), implementation (honesty) and resolution of potential problems (benevolence). The loyalty that results from this commitment is therefore a fidelity of circumstance, very vulnerable to changes in the content of commercial relations or the competitive environment. It is essentially of behavioral type and the attitudes towards the brand and the provider are not very marked.
The majority of recent research considers trust among the main determinants of attachment.
Gurviez (2002) defines trust from the consumer’s point of view as “the presumption by the consumer that the brand as a personified entity is committed to having a predictable action in accordance with its expectations, and to maintain this orientation in the duration”. It distinguishes two main components of trust, a cognitive component “perceived credibility of the brand” and an affective component “perceived loyalty of the brand”, which is also referred to as “benevolence”. Trust has often been studied as an antecedent to commitment and brand loyalty. Sometimes it has been studied concomitantly with attachment to explain fidelity.
From the different conceptualizations of trust in the brand, it is clear that this is a very important psychological variable that promotes the creation of a strong link between consumers and brands.
Chapter 3: Empirical Study: The Relationship Between Brand, Satisfaction, and Fidelity
The aim of this chapter is to test the hypotheses emitted in the first two chapters by following several statistical tests. We will validate or refute these hypotheses. The steps followed consist in choosing the sample, collecting the data, analyzing its data and finally concluding the results.
3.2 Research Methodology
Our methodology includes the following points: identification of the research problem, characteristics of the sample and construction of the questionnaire.
In order to complete the various book reviews and documentary research on the brand and its influence on the consumer, a qualitative study was done to better understand the behavior of the Lebanese consumer, and the influence of the image brand and its value on the loyalty and satisfaction of this consumer.
Here we rely on a paradigm of positivist inspiration insofar as we start from a particular context to a general context. The experiment will be conducted on a representative sample of the population, thus obtaining “local” results, but generalizable.
3.3 The hypothetico-deductive approach
The hypothetico-deductive approach typically starts with a hypothesis or research question usually built on the basis of an analysis of the literature and continues with the development and application of a research plan intended to test the hypothesis or answer the question.
The hypothetico-deductive term also qualifies an approach that relies “on hypothetical propositions to deduce logical consequences”. This approach must make it possible to identify laws of a universal nature, or to gradually build general theories and explanatory models that we have the mission to seek to reinforce or refute by putting it to the test of empirical tests. “Positive” results will reinforce laws, theories, or hypotheses, while “negative” results will invalidate them.
By conclusion according to Verhagen (2010) the approach contains the following phases:
• Observation / questioning
• Developing a hypothesis (which must be rebuttable)
• Deduction of predictions (which can be tested and possibly invalidated)
• Definition of experiments to test predictions
• Validation or invalidation of predictions (and thus hypotheses) by experience
• Validations to consolidate the hypothesis which then becomes theory
3.4 The sample
The starting point for quantitative research is usually the formulation of hypotheses and research questions that need to be verified. As we have already pointed out, the approach adopted by a quantitative approach is essentially hypothetico-deductive.
In a quantitative approach, the main purpose is to generalize the results of the sample to the mother population, this “generalization” of the results to a wider set of situations – can only be made if conditions
strict conditions were respected during the study. According to Quintin (2012) In addition to respecting the statistical conditions inherent in the analysis of quantitative data, the methodology must allow:
• to ensure that the sample is representative of the population to which the results are to be generalized;
• to control the possible effects of variables other than those studied which may affect the analyzed phenomenon;
• to guarantee the validity and fidelity of the measurements made
In the non-probability sampling branch, we find convenience sampling, as the name implies, convenience samples are chosen by the suitability of the researcher. The interviewer can say that his sample represents the mother population. Only members who are within the reach of the investigator have the opportunity to be selected. The reasons that made us choose convenience sampling, are essentially the lack of a sampling frame on Lebanese consumers attached to the brand. Our target population is all Lebanese consumers aged between 15-50 years old and over. Our sample consists mainly of people residing in Beirut and its surroundings. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face with colleagues in homes, supermarkets, the faculty, the market, work places, and finally in cafes. In total, data collection took place in October 2015. The purpose of the sample selection was to cover the different age groups, social situations and types of consumers.
to cover all elements of the mother population. A hundred interviews were made.
The distribution of the sample is as follows
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Man 44 44.0 44.0 44.0
Woman 56 56.0 56.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Sex distribution
Your age is between
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 15-21 54 54.0 54.0 54.0
22-30 30 30.0 30.0 84.0
30-50 13 13.0 13.0 97.0
50 ; more 3 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 :Age distribution
Your monthly income is between
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 500$-1000$ 36 36.0 36.0 36.0
1000$-2000$ 19 19.0 19.0 55.0
2000$ ; more 5 5.0 5.0 60.0
Without pay 40 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 : Salaries distribution
By conclusion, our sample consists of 100 questionnaires including 44 men and 56 women distributed over different age groups and financial level which makes our sample representative of the mother population. By following we will be able to generalize the results obtained.
3.5 Data collection
The hypotheses retained in this research were tested using a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire. We chose the market for “smart phones” because they are consumed almost by all Lebanese. A list has been prepared containing the names of eight brands of “smart phones” present in Lebanon with a strong brand image and a large share in the Lebanese market. This list will play the role of assistant memory for consumers who do not know they are under the influence of a certain brand. Respondents should then rate the selected mark on 16 questions on a 5-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 for: strongly disagree to 5 for: strongly agree).
The topics covered in the questionnaire are:
• favorite brand
• consumer relationship with the brand
• impact of the brand’s reputation
• impact of brand awareness
• impact of the quality of service of the brand
• brand satisfaction
• brand loyalty
The questionnaire :
We’re are students at AUL . As part of our degree in marketing, We’re conducting a study that aims to understand the impact of the brand on the loyalty and satisfaction of the Lebanese consumer. This quiz will take about 5 minutes of your time. All your answers will remain confidential; the results will be used for scientific purposes.
I thank you in advance for your cooperation.
I. Let us know you a little better:
1. You are:
2. Your age is between:
O 50 and over
3. Your monthly income is between:
A $ -1000 $ 500
O $ 1000 $ -2000
O $ 2000 and more
O Without salary
II. This questionnaire aims to study your relationship with a certain brand that you prefer. In our study we chose the market of “smart phones” .Please specify from this list the name of your favorite brand. (Choose the one you know best, you need to be a user, because this is the brand that will carry the rest of the questionnaire):
O Other: ………………… ..
III. Indicate your degree of agreement with the following proposals (from 1: strongly disagree to 5: strongly agree).
1 : not agree at all
2 : rather disagree 3 : neither agree nor disagree 4 : somewhat agree 5 : Totally agree
This brand has a great reputation in Lebanon 3359155080000 31342611297000 35496511297000 26758611297000 30940011297000
This brand is international 33147016489600 29845016553100 36004516553100 26092516510000 32258016198500
I trust this brand 33718525681600 30416525644500 35687025681600 26547825654000 33919825681600
I’ve already seen a lot of ads on this brand in the media 33761622542500 30337423405100 37359523368000 26537021653500 33919823442300
I prefer to buy a known brand when I use the product in public 33401027102500 30099027128800 33575927051000 26283027051000 31940527039000
This is a brand that is widely consumed by my entourage 33972524515800 30607024515800 36703024579300 26797024579300 31522324610500
The reputation of this brand has an influence on my purchase decision 31051516578200 31215616578200 35491716578200 29057817403800 32131020031200
This mark corresponds to the image that I wish to give of myself to others 30315934040800 30442933934200 36576033913800 32766033997700 32358733913800
This brand has a good quality of service
30480020564400 31406120437400 32385020500900 29273520627900 32321520219400
This brand is continually seeking to meet the needs of consumers
30125446258000 29337046223200 35496546223200 27305041815300 31242041714700
This brand gives me the satisfaction that I seek for this type of product 30644127605700 29083027605700 35205429307000 26939629220800 33528029331000
Overall I am satisfied with this brand 28982318827100 29072218827100 35803318509600 27515918509600 32358718509600
I am very attached to this brand 31178510790200 30480010790200 37528510790200 30178110731500 34036010790200
Usually, I always buy the same brand for this type of product 30891026770600 30924526733500 36258525844500 29786326733500 31940526733500 I will not buy another brand if my usual brand is not available in the store 29654524409100 28945224409100 36803625271800 30309925247700 31559524356400 I consider myself loyal to this brand 30229619592800 29464019558000 35560019558000 37719019558000 33845519558000 Chapter 4: Results
The scientific treatment of the data collected consisted in carrying out the chi-square test after the Phi-cramer test, in order to establish links between the propositions that validate our hypotheses.
We have conventionally chosen a chi-square value of 0.05 and 0.70 for Phi-Cramer as validation thresholds.
As a result, if the chi-square value tends to zero, then there is a relationship between the two tested propositions and the hypothesis is validated. On the contrary, if the value is smaller than 0.05 the hypothesis will be rejected. The same case applies for the Phi-Cramer test if the value is greater than 0.70 the hypothesis is validated and vice versa.
4.2 The results
First, all the data collected from our questionnaire are introduced in the statistical program “IBM statistics” which was our tool to calculate the frequencies, the numbers, the Chi-square values ??and the Phi-Cramer values ??from which we concluded our results.
4.2.1 The influence of the reputation of the brand on the purchase decision
The hypothesis to be tested here is our first hypothesis that talks about the influence of the reputation of the brand on the purchase decision. We ran a frequency test and the results are shown in the following table:
The reputation of this brand has an influence on my purchase decision
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Strongly disagree 3 3.0 3.0 3.0
disagree 5 5.0 5.0 8.0
neither agree nor disagree 10 10.0 10.0 18.0
agree 50 50.0 50.0 68.0
strongly agree 32 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4 : reputation’s influence
When reading the contingency table containing the frequencies, we note that 82% of the consumers questioned are influenced by the reputation of the brand from which it is concluded that the hypothesis is validated so the brand has a positive influence on the decision to buy the product. Lebanese consumer.
4.2.2 The influence of reputation on satisfaction
After having validated our first hypothesis indicating the positive influence of a good reputation on the consumer’s purchasing decision, we test here the influence of the brand reputation on the satisfaction of the consumer. The results are present in the following tables.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 62.372a 16 .000
Likelihood Ratio 46.221 16 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 18.545 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5 : Chi-square values for Hypothesis 2
The calculated Chi-square value (equal to 0) is less than the validation threshold (0.05). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. We can deduce the presence of a relationship between the reputation of the brand and the satisfaction of the consumer.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .790 .000
Cramer’s V .395 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6 : Phi-Cramer values for Hypothesis 2
The calculated Phi-Cramer value (equal to 0.790) is greater than the validation threshold (0.70). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. This value confirms the result of the chi-square test.
We can validate the second hypothesis H 2: the reputation of the brand positively influences the satisfaction of the Lebanese consumer.
4.2.3 The influence of reputation on loyalty
After the validation of the positive influence of the reputation on the satisfaction of the Lebanese consumer we are interested to see its influence on the loyalty of this consumer.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 40.135a 16 .001
Likelihood Ratio 41.497 16 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 6.306 1 .012
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 3
According to this table the value of Chi-square (equal to 0.001) is lower than the validation threshold (0.05) indicates the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. Whence it is concluded that reputation influences fidelity.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .666 .001
Cramer’s V .317 .001
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8 : Phi-Kramer value for hypothesis 3
The value of Phi-kramer in this table (equal to 0.666) approximately equal to the validation threshold (0.70) we can conclude the presence of a relationship between the two variables.
By analyzing these two tests we deduce that our hypothesis is validated H3: the reputation of the brand positively influences the loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
The verification of the first three hypotheses shows the importance of the reputation of the brand, which influences the decision to purchase, the satisfaction and the loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
4.2.4 The influence of notoriety on satisfaction
Up to this point, we have confirmed the positive influence of the brand’s reputation on the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer. Then we will study the relationship between brand awareness and satisfaction. The following tables show the results.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 43.915a 16 .000
Likelihood Ratio 31.478 16 .012
Linear-by-Linear Association 9.916 1 .002
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 4From this table, the value of Chi-square (equal to 0) is less than the validation threshold (0.05) which indicates the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. Whence it is concluded that notoriety influences satisfaction.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .663 .000
Cramer’s V .331 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10 : Phi-Kramer value for hypothesis 4
The value of Phi-kramer in this table (equal to 0.663) approximately equal to the validation threshold (0.70) so we can conclude the presence of a relationship between the two variables.
So the reputation as the brand’s reputation, positively influences the consumer satisfaction of this brand.
These two tests validate our fourth hypothesis H4: Brand awareness has a positive influence on Lebanese consumer satisfaction.
4.2.5 The influence of reputation on fidelity
We have demonstrated the presence of a relationship between the brand’s reputation and loyalty to that brand, and then we test the relationship between brand awareness and loyalty.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 33.083a 16 .005
Likelihood Ratio 29.726 16 .019
Linear-by-Linear Association 6.739 1 .009
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 5We note from the table the value of Chi-square (equal to 0.005) is below the validation threshold (0.05) which indicates the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. We deduce that notoriety influences fidelity.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .705 .007
Cramer’s V .288 .007
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 12 : Phi-Kramer value for hypothesis 5The value of Phi-kramer in this table (equal to 0.705) exceeds the validation threshold (0.70) so we can conclude the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables.
The chi-square and phi-kramer tests indicate the strong relationship between brand awareness and consumer loyalty which validates our hypothesis H5: brand awareness positively influences the loyalty of the Lebanese consumer. Our results confirm, the important role played by brand awareness and reputation in the process of satisfying and retaining consumers.
4.2.6 The influence of service quality on satisfaction
We then go on to study the influence of service quality on customer satisfaction. We tested the hypothesis by two statistical tests and the results are present in the following tables.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 92.715a 16 .000
Likelihood Ratio 46.795 16 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 33.275 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 13 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 6We note from the table the value of Chi-square (equal to 0) is below the validation threshold (0.05) which indicates the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. We deduce that the quality of service influences fidelity.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .713 .000
Cramer’s V .357 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 14 : Phi-Kramer value for hypothesis 7The calculated Phi-Cramer value (equal to 0.713) is greater than the validation threshold (0.70). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. This value confirms the result of the chi-square test.
So by conclusion, the quality of service has a very strong influence on consumer loyalty. This indicates the validity of our hypothesis H 7: The quality of service of the brand positively influences the loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
4.2.7 The influence of trust on satisfaction
Consumer confidence in their brand is a very important factor and in the next part we will discover the influence of this trust on the satisfaction of this consumer. The following tables present the results.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 62.372a 16 .000
Likelihood Ratio 46.221 16 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 18.545 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 15 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 8The calculated Chi-square value (equal to 0) is less than the validation threshold (0.05). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. We can deduce the presence of a relationship between brand trust and consumer satisfaction.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .790 .000
Cramer’s V .395 .000
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 16 : : Phi-Kramer value for hypothesis 8The calculated Phi-Cramer value (equal to 0.790) is greater than the validation threshold (0.70). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. This value confirms the result of the chi-square test.
4.2.8 The influence of trust on fidelity
After validating the positive influence of trust in a brand on consumer satisfaction, it remains to test the influence of trust on the loyalty of this consumer.
Value Df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 39.369a 16 .001
Likelihood Ratio 37.430 16 .002
Linear-by-Linear Association 9.839 1 .002
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 17 : Chi-square value for hypothesis 9
The calculated Chi-square value (equal to 0.001) is less than the validation threshold (0.05). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. We can deduce the presence of a relationship between trust in the brand and consumer loyalty.
Value Approx. Sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi .627 .001
Cramer’s V .314 .001
N of Valid Cases 100 Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 18 : Valeur Phi-Cramer pour l’hypothèse 9The calculated Phi-Cramer value (equal to 0.627) is approximately equal to the validation threshold (0.70). Note the presence of a strong relationship between the two variables. This value confirms the result of the chi-square test.
Finally, this analysis allowed us to offer a better understanding of the factors influencing the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
The test results validated our whole hypothesis which allows us to confirm our research question or our general hypothesis:
“Does the brand have a positive impact on the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer? ”
By concluding the brand with its reputation, reputation, quality of service, trust has a positive influence on the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
Following the reading and analysis of several books and articles we have written three chapters focusing on the brand and its impact on customer satisfaction and loyalty.
In the first chapter, we are interested in understanding the brand, its image and the concepts related to this image. Five hypotheses are put forward concerning the influence of the reputation and the notoriety on the satisfaction and the fidelity of the consumer.
In the second chapter, we focused on customer satisfaction and loyalty. After the definition of these two terms in addition to the factors related to these two terms. Four hypotheses are emitted concerning the influence of the quality of the service and the confidence on the satisfaction and the fidelity of the consumer.
In the third chapter, we focused on testing our hypotheses following an empirical study using statistical tools.
The data are collected using a questionnaire distributed on a sample of 100 people. Our assumptions are tested using the SPSS statistical program. After several tests all our hypotheses are validated.
Finally, we recommend to managers wishing to promote consumer satisfaction and loyalty to their brands to focus on certain points:
• good brand awareness positively influences consumer satisfaction and loyalty
• a good brand reputation positively influences consumer satisfaction and loyalty
• good brand service quality positively influences consumer satisfaction and loyalty
• Consumers who trust a brand are satisfied and loyal consumers
Several other future avenues of research can be proposed:
• In our case, the results relate to the Lebanese consumer, and one might wonder whether the impact of the brand would be the same for consumers from other cultures.
• We can also propose studies on variables that have not been tested in this study, such as those relating to the factors that have a negative influence on the satisfaction and loyalty of the Lebanese consumer.
List of paintings
Table 1: Distribution of sex 36
Table 2: Age distribution 36
Table 3: Distribution of Wages 36
Table 4: Influence of reputation 39
Table 5: Chi-Square Values ??for Hypothesis 2 39
Table 6: Phi-Cramer Values ??for Hypothesis 2 40
Table 7: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 3 40
Table 8: Phi-Kramer Value for Hypothesis 3 41
Table 9: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 4 42
Table 10: Phi-Cramer Value for Hypothesis 4 42
Table 11: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 5 43
Table 12: Phi-Cramer Value for Hypothesis 5 43
Table 13: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 6 44
Table 14: Phi-Cramer Value for Hypothesis 6 45
Table 15: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 7 45
Table 16: Phi-Cramer Value for Assumption 7 46
Table 17: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 8 46
Table 18: Phi-Cramer Value for Hypothesis 8 47
Table 19: Chi-Square Value for Hypothesis 47
Table 20: Phi-Cramer Value for Assumption 9 48
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