chapter is based on the description of methodology employed to collect and
analyze the data in order to solve the research problem. To ensure the
reliability of data, the data has been collected from the Arab students. As the
reliability of data is pivotal to any research, it has been defined as the
range to which the result is consistent over time and an exact
illustration of the total population in
which the results shall not reproduce any similar methodology, then the
research instrument can be considered reliable (Joppe,2000).
the case of reliability into consideration an observation method was devised to
collect data more accurately. The advantage of observational technique used
here in this study can be summed up as an opportunity to collect larger amounts
of data, rich particularly on the participant’s behavior in particular
contexts. The repeated observations helped in earning a multilayered
understanding of the participants as well.
in the area of Mother Tongue Interference in learning a foreign language is no
doubt multidimensional. One of such varied dimensions can be the use of
Psycholinguistic research methodology to carry out the research in this area.
Although any of the experimental procedures has not been used in this research
but it is quite justifiable to use such a type of research methodology to
access the different paradigms of Mother tongue interference in learning of a
foreign language. Because of the fact that it is the question of processing of
language and its dimensions that need to be reasonably argued and tested
against proposed hypotheses and theories.
there are many theories and propositions that has been made and ascertained by
earlier works in this area but it still posed a question as why is there the
persistence of mother tongue interference. So, in this case the present
research work has been designed to address such a question, although at
theoretical level or in a qualitative paradigm only. There has been certain
limitations to this research and for that cause there are some recommendations
and suggestions for further research which has been given at the end of the conclusion
of this study.
interference is a crucial area of study, even in the present times. It has been and is being worked out in various
dimensions like that of Pedagogy, Pragmatics, Cognitive Science, and Error
Analysis etc. Using different methodologies and procedures it has been studied
both quantitatively as well as qualitatively by many researchers so far. The
literature supports the view that everyone has been trying their best to add to
this problems of this type of study.
as an attempt, this study has also been designed well; keeping in view the
basic research methodology in Psycholinguistic paradigms. For the very first
step a pilot study was conducted. As a pilot study was conducted being inspired
by the type of Processing Research. Processing research has its basis in
psycholinguistic processing. It does not form the basis for the structure of
linguistic forms, as can be seen in other types of Linguistic researches. It
needs to be revisited that the field of Psycholinguistics highlights and
testifies the actual mechanisms involved in learning.
the basis of processing research this study turns qualitative in nature.
Moreover, the use of cyclical data analysis procedure i.e. examining patterns
of occurrence in the elicited data and then using those patterns of occurrences
to draw inferences and recursively generate and test hypotheses, sufficed the
methodical need. Some quantity of data has been presented in the Analysis
Chapter of this thesis. This quantification has two main purposes. Firstly, it
is the basis for generation of hypotheses and secondly, it verifies the
occurrences of patterns in the data collected.
1. need for psycholinguistic
Because of the fact that psycholinguistics is the
field which studies the dynamics of language processing, this dynamics is
studied in two manners called the techniques of on-line and off-line
processing. The on-line techniques
quantify and measure the variables that ‘tap’ into language processing as soon
as it happens, and off-line techniques focus on and measure variables related
to the consequent outcomes of such processing (Garrod, 2006)
Although the psycholinguistic methodology is mostly
experimental and quantitative in nature but it is also qualitative in nature
and uses observational techniques for the generation of hypotheses. The present
study tried to keep in focus the basic assumption of Psycholinguistic Theory of
Language which may be defined as the study of the way human language is
processed in brain. This assumption which, is a quite developed and reliable
method in itself, paves the way for Language interference reasons. In language
interference studies a researcher observes some structural changes in a target
language that is learned by a population.
Moreover, this methodology that has been adopted will
help in qualitatively validating the research problem and hypotheses, which
assumes that there is already an inherently exercised structure of Arabic
Language in the population under study, which poses for the errors committed in
learning English as Foreign language. Interestingly, these errors are by large
a case of negative transfer in the shape of morphological elements and
structures from Arabic to English, which are discussed in Chapter-5 of this
The approach employed to this study is purely qualitative
one, in which the observational technique has been judiciously used to suffice
the purpose of data collection. The population has been observed very keenly
for a pilot study and as well as for the overall data collection process. In
overall process of data collection the ethical and moral guidelines have been
followed. This study is exploratory in nature. As Mason (1996) noted, “observation
usually refers to “methods of generating data which involve the researcher
immersing him or herself in a research setting, and systematically observing
dimensions of that setting, interactions, relationships, actions, events, and
so on, within it” (p. 60). The same has been tried at its best to collect
proper data for morphological analysis in order to arrive at the reasons of
Mother Tongue Interference.
Precisely, a cross sectional survey design was used.
The vital and crucial components of the population were taken into
consideration and then a random selection or random sampling technique for the cross-section
of research subjects was implemented to fetch the required data.