There details of the particular application. application layer

There are many definitions of network management 7. The ISO´s (International Organization for Standardization) one says that “Network Management has mechanisms to monitored, control and coordinate OSI (Open System Interconnection) environment´s resources for the information exchange between these resources”. It involves the areas like Fault, security, configuration account, performance: The facilities needed to evaluate the behavior of managed objects and the effectiveness of communication activities.
Computer networks comprise the communication protocols, which use a set of rules to enable computer-based devices to communicate with each other. These protocols work as a set of network layers that are known as a network protocol stack to enable network capabilities. The protocols at each layer are mutually agreed on the format of performing functions. Figure 1.2 shows a block diagram of two nodes that use the transport control protocol / internet protocol (TCP/IP) network layers to communicate with each other.
• The application layer handles the details of the particular application.
application layer protocols: The hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and file transfer protocol (FTP)
• The transport layer provides the end to-end data transfer by delivering data from one application to its remote peer. The most frequently used transport layer protocol is TCP.
• The network layer, also known as the Internet layer, is responsible for routing data packets and forming the network; it shields the upper layer from the physical network. The Internet protocol (IP) is the most important protocol in this layer.
• The physical layer, which is the actual interface with the physical hardware that is responsible for sending data through the network.


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