The organ. In the digestive system the

The stomach is a muscular organ located on the left side of the upper abdomen.

The main functions of the stomach are to break down and digest food in order to obtain nutrients from the food you have eaten. The stomach is made up of four parts, the cardia, fundus, corpus, and pylorus. The cardia is the portion of the stomach where food passes from the esophagus into the stomach. The corpus is the largest part of the stomach and is where most of the digestion occurs.

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The pylorus is connected to the small intestine as this is where the food inside the stomach travels. The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food. Rugae line, a muscle tissue, line the stomach. The stomach muscles contract periodically, churning food to enhance digestion.

The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine. The stomach has a dilated structure and functions as a vital digestive organ. In the digestive system the stomach is involved in the second phase of digestion, following chewing (“Stomach.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.

, n.d. Web. 22 Jan. 2018.

).    One major disease that affects the stomach is stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, which is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

First off, all cancers manifest when a mutation occurs in a cell’s DNA. The mutation causes cells multiply extremely quickly. This rapid rate of growth is what causes tumors to form and can invade nearby body structures. For the increased risk of stomach cancer to manifest, the person most likely has a family history of stomach cancer (history of DNA mutations), Stomach polyps, Eating foods contaminated with a fungus called aflatoxin and a diet high in salty and smoked foods. The most common cause is infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which accounts for more than 60% of cases. Although there are no 100% sure ways to prevent stomach cancer, since it’s not clear what always causes stomach cancer, there are several steps someone can make in order to reduce the risk of stomach cancer by making changes to their lifestyle. These changes include reducing the amount of salty and smoked foods they eat, stop smoking or not smoking at all in the first place, exercise (physical activity in most days of the week), and simply eating more fruits and vegetables.    Once someone has stomach cancer, they may not experience symptoms right away because stomach cancer is often either asymptomatic (producing no noticeable symptoms) or it may cause only nonspecific symptoms (symptoms that may also be present in other related or unrelated disorders) in its early stages.

But when symptoms finally occur, cancer has often reached an advanced stage and may have spread to other parts of the body. These symptoms are weakness, fatigue, bloating of the stomach after meals, abdominal pain in the upper abdomen, nausea and occasional vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Stomach cancer may also cause weight loss or blood within vomit, poop, etc. Stomach cancer rarely affects children ages 0-18, but becomes increasingly common in anyone 19-60+ and occurs twice as often in males as in females. Globally, stomach cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer making up 7% of cases and 9% of deaths.    There are various treatments available to help people who have stomach cancer. They are medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Medications include chemotherapy, which kills cells that are growing or multiplying too quickly, and chemotherapy protective drugs which reduces the side effects of chemotherapy treatment since chemotherapy has side effects such as hair loss because hair is a rapidly growing cell similar to a tumor. A medical procedure to help with stomach cancer is radiation therapy which uses x-rays and other high-energy rays to kill abnormal cells. Furthermore, two types of surgeries can be used for stomach cancer, Gastrectomy, and Gastroenterostomy.

Gastrectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the stomach while Gastroenterostomy is a surgery that connects the small intestine to an opening made in the stomach.


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