The education and unfair payment. “Educational gender inequality”

The topic of the sixth group was gender in education. They chose to discuss this topic from the perspective of single-sex education. They introduced the background of single-sex education and why some people advocate single-sex education, such as less gender intensification, specific instruction for gender. At the same time, they also discussed the reasons why some people oppose single-sex education, such as hard for students to adapt to society, lacking qualified teachers for gender based education. Moreover, the team members also used a lot of literature and references to discuss the advantages of single-sex education for students. Finally, they talked about the shortcomings of single sex education and gave some suggestions. However, the gender gap exists in every country, and has a big influence to women. This paper will discuss from the perspective of social issues caused by gender in education and focuses on the analysis of the connections between gender inequality in education and unfair payment.
“Educational gender inequality” includes “educational inequality” and “gender inequality”, which refers to the lack of fairness in different areas (Zheng, 2015). Educational gender inequality is a complex and diverse issue that cannot be simply analyzed only from education or gender. Therefore, an overview from the social perspective needs to be used into the concept of “gender” in order to analyze “educational gender inequality”, and it is useful to provide the concept of “social gender” to analyze “educational gender inequality”. “Social gender” refers to the gender characteristics and differences formed by the two genders under the construction of social culture (Busch & Holst, 2011). It means the understanding of gender differences formed by social culture, and the group characteristics and behavior patterns formed in social culture that belong to men or women. Due to this difference, the society gives different expectations, demands and restrictions to men and women. In educational field, women’s gender specific characteristics are ignored. Therefore, gender differences become educational gender inequality or education in gender discrimination.
Successful women are often described as hard-working but not talented as men. Their achievements are considered to be based on spending a lot of time on books, but not because they have talents or abilities. Women’s competences and skills are so undervalued that women frequently earn less than men for doing comparable jobs, although the jobs have the equal values. For example, in 2012, women who had worked as cooks, cleaners, catering and care staff for Birmingham City Council won the compensation because they were denied bonuses which were handed out to employees in traditionally male-dominated but similar-level jobs such as refuse collectors, street cleaners, road workers and grave-diggers (World Bank, 2011).
In education, it has the same situation. In traditional education, the teacher interprets the boys’ academic performance as smart and strong; and the excellent performance of the female students is interpreted as hard work (Liao, 2016). This kind of educational gender inequality in teaching will inevitably lead to the psychological implication of “strong male and weak female” for female students. Therefore, female are more likely to have a sense of gender inferiority, helplessness, and then they will weaken their achievement motivation. Furthermore, according to a study by the German history professor Eva Salomon, only 35% of teachers allocated their attention to girls (European Commission, 2011). However, the PISA results from 2000 to 2012 showed that girls outperformed boys in reading comprehension (Sigporsson, 2017). Furthermore, those results suggest that gender difference escalates as children progress through their compulsory education.
Those contribute to downplay the gender payment gap often argue that women volunteer to choose lower pay jobs, such as some stereotypically female professions, or they do not have higher educational level. However, when men and women work in the same occupation, for example, hairdressers, nurses, teachers, computer engineers, mechanical engineers, or construction workers—men earn more, on average, than women (Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group, 2015). It means that women earn less per hour at every education level on average. Indeed, women’s educational attainment outpaces men’s educational level. 37.0 percent of women have a college or advanced degree, as compared with 32.5 percent of men (Current Population Survey Outgoing Rotation Group, 2015). Even straight out of college, women make 4 dollars less per hour than men. The gap has grown since 2000 (Kroeger, Cooke, ; Gould, 2016).
In education, women’s abilities are not as well-excavated as men. Women always undertake the jobs like assistants, secretaries which are not so valued for public that it is difficult for more women to receive respect. Therefore, the gender gap leads to women’s unvalued competences to be reflected not only in education, but also in employment, in workplace, especially in payment.
Although some educators argued that the society do not easily raise the “difference” caused by gender to the height of “discrimination” and women should not be compared to men everywhere in the workplace. However, it is an objective fact that women are in a weak position in the workplace. Through from the research of World Bank (2011), the results showed that more than 90% of women believe that there is gender discrimination in workplace, while only 58% of men support this view. In education domain, the situation is the same like in workplace. Most schools do not provide equal gender education to guide children to follow their special needs according to gender differences. There is a strong relationship between educational gender gap and women’s unfair payment. It is necessary that every educational stakeholder should examine where the society provides unequal opportunities for women at every point of their education, training, and career choices in order to promote the equal gender education.

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