The fossil energy sources in the world are depleting while the
energy demand is increasing manifold and there exists a gap between the demand
and supply of the same. The promising renewable substitute source of fuel
generated from natural tree born oils, fats of animals and even waste cooking
oil has been identified as a solution for the alarming global twin problems of
fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation1-3.In the beginning of
diesel engines, vegetable oils were tried (their original compositions
unaltered) as a conceivable engine fuel yet the thought never grabbed hold
attributable to incongruence issues, for example, deterioration of the oil with
time, high viscosity, and fouling of the engine.
As of late the biodiesel route has been reactivated for various
reasons like (a) it has been discovered that vegetable oil can be changed by
means of esterification into a product which is substantially more satisfactory
as a diesel fuel than the original oil itself (b) a wide assortment of vegetable
oils can be utilized as crude material for transesterification; this has
prompted the possibility that biodiesel production could be an approach to
broaden the part of agriculture (more employments made and diminished monetary
weight for oil imports in developing nations).
Biodiesel is a type of sustainable power source that can be used
specifically in any current, unmodified diesel engine. It has accomplished more
prominent consideration attributable to its favorable circumstances, for
example, (I) Energy Independence (ii) Smaller Trade Deficit (iii) Economic
Growth (iv) Cleaner Air (v) Less Global Warming.
The vegetable oil is conceivably ready to supplant mineral oil in
future. Biodiesel is created through transesterification, a procedure in which
organically derived oils are combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the
presence of a catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester (Zhang et al., 2003).
Biodiesel can be blended with diesel fuel or utilized 100% specifically in an
engine. Biodiesel can be gotten from rural products or sources, for example,
palm oil, coconut, soybean, shelled nut, castor, sesame, assault seed oils,
squander vegetable oils, or microalgae oils. Biodiesel is physically similar to
petroleum diesel yet has the value of being gotten from characteristic,
inexhaustible sources. A blend of 20% biodiesel with 80% oil (B20) can be
utilized as a part of all diesel-consuming equipment, including
compression-ignition engines and oil heat boilers, without alterations.
Recently, Ahmad et al (2010) has prepared biodiesel from sesame oil
by its transesterification with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst
and most extreme yield of 92% was accomplished at 60°C. The fuel properties of
sesame biodiesel (100%, for example, specific gravity @ 60/60°F was 0.887,
flash point 110°C, pour point – 18°C, kinematic consistency @ 40°C 5.77, cetane
number 53, and sulfur substance 0.0083. Engine energizing with sesame biodiesel
and its blends (B20%, B10%, and B5%) regarding fuel consumption, efficiency,
and power outputs seemed to have rise to execution contrasted with mineral
diesel. There is no undeniable change in motor power yield even at 100%
biodiesel. It was observed that the natural execution of sesame biodiesel was
better than that of mineral diesel. This study supports the production of
biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a reasonable other option to the diesel fuel.
Sesame and other oil crops are a promising new energy supply sources. The
potential of some plant oils that can be utilized to produce biodiesel has been
displayed in Table 1.