The to create quality democratic schools. Inclusive schools are

dictionary meaning of ‘Inclusion’
is to take in or consider as part or member of or to embrace. Inclusion is
about membership or belonging to a community. In context to education, it is
restructuring schools as communities where old children can learn. Inclusion provides
more ways for teachers to make learning easy for children. But there is no
standardized procedure to make teachers and schools inclusive.

is about to change in schools to improve the educational system for all
students. Inclusive education practices reflect the changing culture of
contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment
practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and
increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. The claim
is that schools, centers of learning and educational systems must change so
that they become caring, nurturing, and supportive educational communities
where the needs of all students and teachers are truly met. Inclusive schools
no longer provide “regular education” and “special education.

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By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to
participate and the school’s duty to accept the child. Notably a premium is
placed upon full participation by students with disabilities and upon respect
for their social, civil, and educational rights. Theoretically, feeling
included is not limited to physical and cognitive disabilities, but also
includes the full range of human diversity with respect to ability, language,
culture, gender, age, races and of other forms of human differences.

In this context here it is apt to quote Richard
Wilkinson and Kate Pickett who said, “Student’s performance and behaviour in
educational tasks can be profoundly affected by the way we feel, we are seen
and judged by others. When we expect to be viewed as inferior, our abilities
seem to diminish”.

education provides the places and the catalyst through which general and
special educators, students and parents come together to create quality
democratic schools. Inclusive schools are those designed to meet the
educational needs of all their members with common fluid environments and
activities (Sapon- Shevin, 1996). It
means that special education is no longer defined as a placement but as a
system of support provided to help and address the needs of a subset of
students. In
India, the ideal system of inclusive education is that the general education
system should assume responsibility for the education and children with
disabilities but the reality is different in India. These practices are fully
yet not followed for future implications. The general education system is yet
to be fully sensitized to the educational needs of children with disabilities
and therefore the general system needs the assistance of specialist teachers
for occasional help to make inclusive education work.Inclusion has different historical roots which may
be integration of students with severe disabilities in the US (who may
previously been excluded from schools or even lived in institutions) or an
inclusion model from Canada and the US (e.g., Syracuse University, New York)
which is very popular with inclusion teachers who believe in participatory
learning, cooperative learning and inclusive classrooms. Inclusive education
differs from the early university professor’s work in integration/integration and mainstreaming which were taught throughout the world including
international seminars in Italy. Thus, integration and mainstreaming
principally was concerned about disability and ‘special educational needs’
(since the children were not in the regular schools) and involved teachers,
students, principals, administrators, School Boards and parents changing and
becoming ‘ready for’ students who needed accommodation or new methods of
curriculum and instruction by the mainstream.

The inclusive education movement has
been endorsed internationally by UNESCO’s Salamanca Statement (UNESCO, 1994) and reflects the United
Nation’s global strategy of Education
for all (Farrell and Ainscow,
2002). Inclusive education is now seems as center to human rights and equal opportunities and a priority policy
objective of liberal democracies. Inclusion challenges all those policies and
practices that serve to exclude some children from their right to education.
The underpinning ideal is that all children have the right to be educated
together regardless of any special need or disability. Of late, a consensus has
emerged among Indian intellectuals and pedagogues for adopting inclusive
education in mainstream schools.

‘Inclusion’ or ‘Inclusive Education’ is
not another name for ‘Special needs Education’. The concept ‘Special
Educational Needs’ (SEN) is replaced by the term” barriers to learning and
participation’. Consequently, inclusion is seen to involve the identification
and minimizing barriers to learning and participation and maximizing of
resources to support learning and participation by children with special needs (Booth et al. 2000).

contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s
duty to accept the child returning to the US Supreme Court’s Brown vs. the
Board of Education decision and the new Individuals with Disabilities Education
(Improvement) Act (IDEIA). Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or
classrooms, which remain popular among large multi-service providers, to
separate students with disabilities from students without disabilities. A
premium is placed upon full participation by students with disabilities, in
contrast to earlier concept of partial participation in the mainstream and upon
respect for their social, civil and educational rights. Inclusion gives
students with disabilities skills they can use in and out of the classroom. All
approaches to inclusive schooling require administrative and managerial changes
to move from the traditional approaches to elementary and high school


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