The spinel Co3O4 catalyst supports this interpretation

The spinel cobalt ferrite catalyst compared with other as-synthesized catalysts. The zinc content of spinel ferrites exhibited slightly advanced activity and a continuous operation in 1M KOH, it grieved a major 4-11% reduction in current density of10h. Also, the spinel ZnFe2O4 electrocatalyst shows ~11% decreases in current density of 10h continue operation, suggesting lower stability than the CoFe2O4 electrocatalyst 60. Moreover, the stability is further confirmed by continuous CV measurements at 50 mVs-1 for OER then the polarization curve after 1000 cycles, similar to first cycle but there is negligible loss is observed for optimized spinel CoFe2O4 in performance of the electrode (Fig. 8e) 61. Long-term stability and good catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 electrocatalyst in alkaline media used for practical application. Optimized spinel ferrite structures have been visualized using the VESTA Software 21 are presented in Fig. 8f and the remaining CZF samples have been visualized and presented Fig.S14. 3.9. Mechanism of OER catalytic activity of CZF
The overview of results confirmed that in spinel ferrite, divalent metal (Co2+ and Zn2+) ions significantly leading the OER activities. Which signify the Co2+ ions acting as originator to begin the transformation to ?-MOOH, whereas Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions failed to achieve such transformation 70. A pure phase spinel Co3O4 catalyst supports this interpretation of these results compared with those from the presence of Co(OH)2 enhances catalytic activity by encouraging transformations to Co-O(OH) 73. (ADD)
4. Conclusion
In conclusion, we showed that the spinel CZF were prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method with different sintering treatment and their application for a highly efficient and durable electrocatalyst of OER. After each sintering the resulting change in CZF was observed, the formation of cubic spinel phase was formed at 385oC, and the all intensity peaks are well matched with better crystallinity at 450oC. Moreover, the DLS and SEM studies showed particle size increment as the sintering temperature increased and decrement for cobalt substitution. The spinel cobalt ferrite catalyst dried at 50oC exhibits a very small overpotential and small Tafel slope than the other prepared samples, outstanding cyclic durability and showing greater efficient catalyst activity for OER. On the other hand, the CZF ferrite catalyst dried at 50oC exhibits good stability estimated with 10h of continuous cycling, out of them Co ferrite has best stability for OER due to CZF has mesoporous nanostructure and sluggish charge transfer resistance. The finding reveal that a capable of efficient, cost-effective, and highly durable OER.

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