The regulate the menstrual cycle. Ovaries are also the

The disease we have decided to write our report is on ovarian cancer. It is cancer that begins in the ovaries, which are important organs in the human female reproductive system. The normal functions of the ovaries are to produce most of the human sex steroid hormones, which will be Estrogen, Progesterone and Androgens. These substances control the start of puberty and sexual development and regulate the menstrual cycle. Ovaries are also the source of eggs or oocytes, which are released monthly during the process of ovulation in women of reproductive age. The ovaries of newborn female babies already contain all the eggs they will ever have, as the girl matures, the hormones produced by her body causes the eggs to mature and to be released then the ovary must repair itself and undergo the process of regeneration, ready for fertilization and growth into a fetus.  WHAT IS OVARIAN CANCER?It has been known scientifically for over 150 years. 5% – 10% are associated with ovarian cancer are associated with hereditary risks and can be inherited from either parents. A family history of Prostate Cancer may be linked to Ovarian Cancer. The ovary is composed of three different cell types. They are: Epithelial Tissue, Germ cells, which produce eggs,and Stromal tissue, a mesh that supports the ovary. All three of these cell types can give rise to ovarian cancer, but not all cancers are treated the same. Other types of cancer are much more and these include mixed mesodermal tumours or carcinomas and small cell cancer. Ovarian cancer is a serious and under recognized threat to women’s health. It is the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers and is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women. It is also the sixth most common type of cancer to affect women.Epithelial Ovarian Cancer is the most common type, occurs in the surface, related to the frequency of ovulation. The fallopian tubes may be where most ovarian cancers arise from and the most commonly diagnosed will be from the age 60 and older.Germ Cell Tumour usually occur inside the gonads, if originated outside of the gonads there may be birth defects resulting from errors during development of the embryo. It is often diagnosed in young women, and make up 20% of all ovarian tumours and 3% are malignant. Stromal Carcinoma develops in connective tissue of cells that holds the ovary together and the one that produces female hormones Estrogen and Progesterone. The two most common types are the Granulosa cell tumours and the Sertoli’s and Leydig’s. SYMPTOMS• Bloating is normal due to the fluid accumulating in the abnormal cavity. This is because of the cancer spreading• Feeling full or loss of appetite can be because of the fluid as well and can potentially affect breathing once reaches the lung areas• The chances of pregnancy after diagnosis are uncertain because treatments can affect the woman’s reproductive system• The intestines can be affected because they are relatively close which causes swelling and painOther Symptoms:• Abdominal, pressure• Bloating or discomfort• Constipation/Diarrhea• Fatigue• Nausea• Indigestion/Gas• Shortness of breath• Unexplained weight gain or loss• Urinary frequencyDIAGNOSISOne reason ovarian cancer can be a difficult disease to cure is that it often has spread extensively by the time it is diagnosed and another reason is that the treatments do not work completely for everyone. There are no unique symptoms or findings that can lead a health care professional to make a definite diagnosis very early. Almost one-third of women who are eventually diagnosed with ovarian cancer experienced their symptoms for more than six months before the diagnosis was made.  When a woman visits a health care provider because she is experiencing symptoms, the health care provider will probably recommend a series of diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the symptoms. When a patient describes symptoms that could signal a number of different problems, the health care provider will create a mental list of possible diagnoses. Tests are performed to rule out or confirm diagnoses on the list then as the test results become known, one of the potential diagnoses become most likely, and then further testing can focus intently on ruling out or confirming the specific diagnosis. To confirm diagnosis physicians will perform a Laparotomy. It is an exploratory surgical procedure that is required to confirm an ovarian cancer diagnosis. Surgery is nearly always performed to assess the nature of the cancer and treat the disease. Staging the disease is the process of determining the stage of the tumour, which is determined by the location of the cancer, whether other parts of the body are affected and the prognosis. The doctor can prescribe appropriate treatment once she or he knows the stage of tumour. STAGING OF OVARIAN CANCERThe staging of ovarian cancer is performed in order to determine the extent and spread of the disease. Majority of women are found to have advanced diseases at the time of diagnosis. The staging is based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. (FIGO)Stage I: The cancer spread is limited to one or both ovariesIA: Disease is confined to one ovaryIB: Disease is confined to both ovariesIC: Stage IA or IB with cancer cells in the peritoneal washing or ascites or rupture of the ovarian tumour. Stage II: The cancer is confined to the pelvisIIA: Disease has spread to the fallopian tubes and/or uterusIIB: Disease involves other pelvic organs including the bladder, pelvic colon or peritoneum IIC: Stage IIA or IIB with cancer cells on the ovarian surface, pelvic washings or ascites or rupture of the ovarian tumour Stage III: The cancer has spread to the abdomenIIIA: Microscopic disease in the abdominal activityIIIB: Abdominal diseases that is 2 cm or less in diameterIIIC: Abdominal disease that is greater than 2 cm or spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes (pelvic, para-aortic, or inguinal)


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