The prototype of modern botanical gardens in Western Europe were medieval monastic, to a greater extent, utilitarian pharmacies gardens (vegetable gardens). With the development of universities as centers of scientific thought, these gardens began to develop in medical faculties. It is here that active research activities and the systematization of knowledge in the field of fundamental biology begin. One of the first was the training garden at the University of Cologne in Germany, in 1490. Later, botanical gardens appeared at universities in Leipzig (1542), Pisa (1543), Florence and Padua (1545), Rome (1560), Bologna (1576), Madrid (1598) , Oxford (1621), Uppsala (1657). The botanical garden of that time in fact was a living herbarium for taxonomy. The aesthetic component here departed to the last plane. Gardens acted as botanical laboratories at universities, demonstrated various plant systems. This form of functioning was widely spread in the 17th-18th centuries.
The first botanical (apothecary) garden on the territory of Russia appeared in Moscow in 1706. It has survived on this site to the present day. A characteristic historical fact of the 18th century is the establishment of private botanical gardens belonging to certain successful and rich people of that time – Demidov, Razumovsky, Trubetskoi, Urusov, Aksakov, etc. For example, Prokopiy Demidov built a botanical garden in 1756 on the bank of the Moscow River (near Donskoi monastery), which numbered about 5 thousand species and varieties of various plants 4, p. eleven.
At the end of the XVIII century. – the first half of the XIX century. newly created botanical gardens both in Russia and abroad were built mainly as educational gardens at universities. In the future, as the botanical knowledge increases, the range of activity of botanical gardens expands. With the total development of the landscape direction in the park-building art, landscape-style elements appear in the layout of botanical gardens. In botanical gardens, gardeners study and analyze the artistic features and dendrology properties of different plant breeds, methods and techniques for their design, variants of combinatorics of plantations in parks and other important conditions for creating a landscape.
The active development of cities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the grandiose scale of industrial construction was the result of the emergence of complex urban development problems – the sanitation and greening of urban spaces, the creation of a protective forest-park belt around large settlements, etc. – set the world community of botanical gardens the task of identifying the most expedient assortment of plants and development of effective methods and methods of planting of greenery in cities and construction of parks.
So gradually, in the course of its historical development, botanical gardens from medieval apothecary gardens turned into a complex organism endowed with a number of social functions.
Today, generalizing the world experience of development, depending on the purpose of functioning, and also on geographical and cultural location, one can single out the established system of classification of botanical gardens 2, p. 61:
1. Multipurpose gardens. Classical botanical gardens with a wide range of activities: science, education, education, leisure organization, etc.;
2. University gardens. Research centers at universities. Not always focused on communicating with the public – often closed;
3. Historical gardens. The oldest gardens created for medical or religious purposes. Some of them are still actively involved in the conservation of medicinal plants and scientific work;
4. Ornamental gardens. Typically, private gardens with rich and documented plant collections;
5. Zoobotanical gardens. Combined version of the zoological and botanical gardens. Here, plant collections are a natural habitat for animals;
6. Natural (wild) gardens. Gardens are areas with a natural or semi-natural maintained and protected plant environment. They perform environmental and educational functions;
7. Gardens specializing in plant protection. As a rule, modern gardens, the appearance of which is due to the deterioration of the ecological situation. In addition to their own collections, they oversee territories with natural vegetation. They often breed the flora of their own region. They conduct educational activities;
8. Thematic gardens. They specialize in growing a limited group of related plants, as well as plants of a certain subject for the purpose of protecting them, as well as science, education and enlightenment. This group can also include a number of conceptual modern gardens, created, including for commercial purposes;
9. Agrobotanical gardens. Have a collection of plants. They have a certain value for the economy, they are engaged in plant protection, as well as with the development of agriculture. Most are closed to visits;
10. Public gardens. Small gardens with disabilities, created by local societies for their own purposes: organization of leisure, education, plant protection, teaching gardening techniques, etc .;
11. Horticultural centers. Mostly owned by horticultural societies, but open to the general public. Their main task is to promote the development of horticulture through the training of professional gardeners, selection, registration and conservation of varieties of garden plants;
12. Institutional gardens. They represent the territory of an exclusively fundamental science. Closed for visits.