“THE PROCESS OF DECOLONISATION AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION IN SOUTH AFRICA” Kanhaiya Kumar Research Scholar, Centre for African Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Abstract: The course of Social Transformation in South Africa is very significant to academically understand the contradictions of the transition from a traditional society to modern nation state, negative and positive contributions of the colonial legacies, emergence of white nationalism and black nationalism, its conflict with colonialism in terms of both internal and external struggles, the process of decolonisation from the colonial control of external powers to white minority rule and eventually to black majority rule. Generally, it is believed that the history of South Africa starts from the 15 th century, when Europeans discovered this wonderful habitat but it is not correct. Actually, African history begins much earlier as proven by the anthropological discovery of one of the oldest human fossils (Taung Scull) from South Africa. However, this paper attempts to analyse the process of Social Transformation from the formation of Union of South Africa to Republic of South Africa and the end of apartheid regime. Introduction: Social Transformation and Social Change are terms that are often used interchangeably. While it is not entirely incorrect to use one for another, Social Transformation has an inherently different place in classical and modern sociological discourse. There is nothing intrinsically new about the idea of Social Transformation.
Factors that impact Social Transformation can be economic, political situations or demographic changes. In other words, Social Transformation refers to the continuous change that happens over a long period of time in the society with respect to values, norms, institutionalized relationships and stratified hierarchies. It affects patterns of interaction and institutional arrangements within a society. Conceptual Interpretation of Social Transformation The concept of Social Transformation emerged largely in the 18 th century and a number of social scientists attempted to theorise and conceptualize this universal phenomenon. Auguste Comte known as the father of Sociology developed an empirical science called positive philosophy. His works emerged under the social, intellectual, and economic conditions prevalent in the then French society.
The considerable progress in the field of law, natural science and technologies during 18 th and 19 th century implied a progress of development from low degree of social organization to the higher degree. The new world order that emerged after the World War II saw the beginning of a new era. Third world countries were forced to keep pace with the new emerging policies.
During this phase, Social Transformation can be said to touch almost every aspect of society, therefore making it a necessarily of multi-disciplinary nature. The nineteenth century witnessed a revolution unprecedented in human history in both economic and intellectual domain. The publication of Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’ in 1859 led to the analysis of the concept of evolution in all fields of social sciences. This theory of evolution was regarded as the master key which would unlock all the hidden treasures of knowledge in Biology, Astronomy, Geology, Anthropology, Psychology and ethics.
It influenced other streams of knowledge as well. Spencer, Durkheim, Marx and other thinkers used this concept of evolution to describe the development/progress/transformation of society. The profound and revolutionary changes produced by the French revolution, the industrial revolution, the technological advancement and the developing theories of science and educational developments were faithfully reflected in the social thoughts of 19 th century. Herbert Spenser analyzed the three stages of the evolution of society and defined Social Transformation as a evolutionary process of change in all living matter in the world shifting from simple to complex in three stages; integration, differentiation and determination.
In this constant evolution process, different social systems came into existence from the same unit of society through integration and differentiation in various organs of society.He argued that the law of organic process is the law of all progress. Whether it pertains to development of earth, life of men, of society, government, economy etc. the entire process of progress involves change from homogeneous to heterogeneous which is traced in the progress of civilization and of every nation. Society moves from homogenous aggregation to heterogeneous aggregation with differentiation that is from simple to complex, individuals to family, from family to state and so on. It can also be understood in the form of changes in the organization of production activities at the different points of time.
Weber on the other hand, in the context of Western society, rejected the argument of Social Transformation and maintained that western society was historically unique and quite different from other civilisations. He argued that the western societies had developed a different kind of rationality leading towards scientific development, modernisation and capitalism. Emile Durkheim talks about the role of division of labour in the evolutionary process of Social Transformation and argues that the tendency of increasing division of labour was rooted in the basic process of modern individualism and it lacked moral norms. Durkheim argues that society evolve through mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity which is based on division of labour. Mechanical solidarity implies solidarity of resemblance. This resemblance further implies that people in a given society differ very little from each other and they share same emotions and cherish same values.
The society remains coherent because the individuals are not yet differentiated. Organic solidarity represents a unity of organic but this solidarity basically is an outcome of differentiation. This leads to the understanding that the individuals are no longer similar but different. This solidarity is organic, because each one performs a function in spite of differentiation. All functions are very significant and indispensable for life. Therefore, modern societies have differentiation on the basis of division of labour but at the same time this results into increasing interdependence.
The transition from mechanical to organic solidarity is conditioned by progression. Historical and dialectical materialism is a very important methodology to understand the essence of Social Transformation. This methodology was initially used by Marx and Fredric Angeles to analyse the different stages of development of society. Generally materialist analysis of society is known as Marxist analysis or Marxism. However, it is only partially correct. Marxism is a science of social sciences or a scientific apparatus to understand the entire processes of the society. Primarily Marxism was the outcome of industrial revolution and its main components were built up on the basis of ‘Materialism’ from German philosophy, ‘Socialism’ from French revolution and ‘Political Economy’ from classical economics.
After the critical examination of contemporary thoughts and on the basis of new scientific- technological developments, Marxism scientifically analysed the whole process of evolution of the society. Different stages of socio-economic development, theory of surplus-value, class struggle, scientific socialism and communism are important submissions of Marx and Angeles. Marx rejects the idealist view about society and its development. He said that everything is matter and idea itself is a matter because primarily it is a result of the matter. Nothing is static in this universe and universe itself is in motion due to dialectics.
Angeles mentioned three laws of dialectics in his famous book ‘Dialectics of Nature’; the law of transformation of quantity into quality, the law of the interpenetration of opposites, and the law of negation of negation. These laws are also implied on the theories of transformation of society. According to Marxist interpretation of history, human society transformed from primitive communism to capitalist society. Underlining the concept class struggle as a fundamental source of Social Transformation in the society, Karl Marx maintained that transformation in the economic relations; the structure; will result in transformation of institutions, culture, religion, law, philosophy; the super structure. Economic relation is the fundamental base of all other kinds of human relations and change in mode of production leads all other kinds of changes in the society.
There are dialectics in the mode of productions as well which leads to changes in the whole economic system and in entire society. Societies have been stratified in different classes like slave and master in slavery system, farmer and feudal in feudal system, proletariat and capitalist in capitalist system. Social stratification has been profoundly divided into two main classes’ ruler and ruled over the time and class struggle always happens between these two classes. It is also stated in the ‘Manifesto of The Communist Party’ that “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle”. Along with shifts in the systematic characteristics of society, the concept of Social Transformation also includes the critical stance towards the ancient and medieval ideas of development.
It also admits that crisis being created by the forces responsible of the transformative shifts in society. Social Transformation has led to globalization from twentieth century onwards and led to emergence of new forms of global governance. This has simultaneously resulted into a variety of socio-economic crisis both at regional and international levels. This has also given new dimensions to the critical understanding of development and modernization. Social Transformation invariably impacts the society at every level with regard to cultural and economic globalization and uniform governance models.
Ironically polarization and exclusion still remain major global challenges. Even in terms of measuring development there are no clear categories or parameters to measures success. To summarise, it can be argued that; first, Social Transformation is a process of continuous change in the various aspects of society; second, it is a process that goes complex from simple; third, the pace of this process is determined by the historical and revolutionary tendencies within the society. Class and class struggles are dialectical forces of SocialTransformation.
The quantitative changes triggered by the dialectical process eventually lead to a qualitative change in social structure. This process takes place in the form of thesis, anti thesis and synthesis that result in changes in the base as well as super structure of the society. Formation of the Union of South Africa The struggle for British expansion in South Africa was a result of three major factors. First was the fierce aspiration of controlling the trade route to India. Second compelling factor was the ever increasing competition with other imperial powers of Europe. Third and most important factor for British expansion into the continent was the discovery of Diamond deposits in Kimberly and gold in the Transvaal region.
Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Dias was the first European to travel round the southern tip of Africa in the 1480. Shortly after, Portuguese traveller Vasco da Gama reached the coast at Natal. Initially the European colonists were only interested in the staying by the coast and develop the as a transit colony. Also, they could run a prosperous slave trade by staying at the coast itself and did not feel inclined towards venturing deeper into the continent. With growing interest in slave trade and quest for new colonies around the world more imperial powers from Europe joined the Portuguese on the African coast. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck, representing the Dutch East India Company, founded the Cape Colony at Table Bay.
By 1806, the British had seized control of Cape Colony. First signs of resistance came from the Boers, who were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. Boer is the Dutch and Afrikaans noun for “farmer”. In what came to be known as the Great Trek in 1835-1840, the Boers left Cape Colony after becoming impatient of the British oppression and founded the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. While the British granted limited self government to Transvaal, the Boers declared it a republic in late 1850s. The 1867 discovery of diamonds in Kimberly, on the confluence of Orange and Vaal rivers, accelerated the struggle for territorial control. As a result of British aggression, Transvaal was annexed in 1877.
The Boers rebelled against the British and The First Boer War, also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic. As a result, Transvaal was restored as a republic. In the mid 1880s, gold was found in the Transvaal and triggered a gold rush. Africans had traditionally mined gold for centuries. Usually the gold was found in much smaller quantities, forcing small mining towns to close down. The gold found at in 1886 however, was different. The mines here ran for miles and miles under the ground.
This discovery was called ‘an endless treasure of gold’. In 1899, the Second Boer War began as a result of British troops gathering on the border of Transvaal. By this time the British had already defeated the Zulus in Natal. Another important phenomenon going on between 1860 and 1911 was the arrival of thousands of labourers and traders, forebears of the majority of South Africa’s current Indian population from India. On May 31st 1902, after three years of fierce battle, Peace of Vereeniging or the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed at Pretoria to end the second Anglo-Boer War. In what could be termed as a reasonable solution the Transvaal and Orange Free State lost their independence and were made self-governing colonies of the British Empire. Finally in 1910, a Union of South Africa was formed by former British colonies of the Cape Colony and Natal, and the Boer republics of Transvaal, and Orange Free State.
The formation of Union of South Africa was a result of dynamic expansion activity that the region saw between various European and African powers from late 15 th to the early 20 th century. South Africa’s first constitution was passed by the British House of commons through The South Africa Act in 1909. The African black majority had protested and filed a number of petitions against this constitutional arrangement because it established the dominance of white minority not just in the political sphere but also in the social and economic sphere as well. Following the implementation of this act, and Union of south Africa was established merging four provinces; Natal, Cape, Free Orange State and Transvaal on 31st May 1910.
The Union established the rule of an autonomous government under the British rule. In this arrangement the white people dominated the indigenous people. The tradition societal practices and methods had been eliminated by the new regime.
The laws and rules were made on the racial discrimination and apartheid. The idea was to rule the black people and exploit the continents vast natural and human resource. Black people were soon barred from buying and selling their own land. Alienation of black society and its practices was brought upon by discriminatory laws and were aimed at taking land away from the hands of the local people.
This Whites’ rule had two major objectives. First was to secure as many rights as possible from the British crown for themselves. The second objective was to rule over the black native people through discriminatory policies. To achieve their first objective, they attempted to form a unity between English and the Afrikaans speaking whites. For the second one, they formulated multi-layer apartheid policies time to time; for example, the Seminal Natives Land Act-1913, the Natives (Urban areas) Act, 1923. Apart from these acts related to land ownership and socio-economic mobility, the job colour bar scheme was also introduced which confined the non-skilled labour to for the blacks and reserved the skilled positions for the whites.
As the oppressive policies of the British continued in South Africa, the black people were exposed to modern education and industrialization. Although, blacks had lost their traditional authorities, they started getting united and organized to claim their basic rights. This led to the rise of both white and black nationalism at the same time in the South Africa. With the growing need for manpower in mining and industry, slave trade was banned.
Even though traditional agrarian society was destroyed by the expansionist policies, black people were becoming more and more aware of their rights. White nationalists were struggling to achieve sovereignty from the British Crown. They considered themselves the rightful lords of the land and believed in their right to exploit the continent’s resources for their profit notwithstanding the Crown’s control over their exploits. They first alienated the black communities by either driving them further inside the continent or by indulging in slave trade on the coast. The black nationalists on the other hand were the indigenous people who saw white people as exploitative. With the discovery of precious minerals, diamonds and gold in the Orange Free State and Transvaal there was a requirement of mining manpower. As a result, the British declared the slave trade illegal.
There were two benefits of this policy. First, the local people could be retained for working in the mines and secondly, the number of imperial powers eyeing the rich deposits could be controlled. As interaction with the educated and liberated Europeans grew, the black people became more and more aware of their rights. They understood the repression that they are going through at the hands of black people and began to push back.
The emergence of the African National Congress or ANC was a turning point in the struggle for freedom in Africa with the black people coming against their white oppressors in a direct conflict. The ANC became quite successful in drawing together the traditional authorities and newly educated black elite classes and it became the most popular organization fighting for the cause of black people. Initially they believed in the reforms in the constitution to accommodate the rights of the black people and all their efforts were to demand such rights within this constitutional framework. But soon, specially after the first world war and the Russian Revolution in 1917, a militant workers’ movement started emerging across the world and in South Africa as well. In its initial phase, this movement took a stand against the reservation of skilled jobs for whites and the pass laws. Later on, trade unions were formed and in 1921, the Communist Party of South Africa came into existence.
By now the ANC was demanding the rights within the constitutional framework but after this, because of these political developments, the radicalization of African nationalism began in different forms. The white nationalism was also getting reflected in political sphere and all the efforts to unite English and Afrikaans speaking whites did not succeed much to accept the British authority in its complete sense without any resistance. A number of Afrikaan speaking whites were not convinced much with the idea of fighting against the Germany in the First World War and they were also dissatisfied with other political positions of the English speaking whites, and to express their separate identity, they formed a new party in 1914, the National Party (NP). There was a strong political sentiment that the segregation policies could not control the rise and radicalization of the Black Nationalism and this frustration also led to the rise of white nationalism within the Union of South Africa. The contradiction within the whites was also emerging at that time. The mining owners started to employ black labours in the skilled and semi-skilled jobs to cut the lost by dispensing comparatively low wages to the blacks for the same job and to pacify the black nationalism; but it resulted in the growth of militancy among white workers. The goldfields rebellion led to the regime change and stronger segregation policies and its extension in railways, postal services and other government jobs justifying it on the excuse of ‘poor-white’ problem. The Great Depression followed by the Second World War intensified the further radicalization and dissatisfaction in the both sides.
To address the demand of whites, the regime chose to implement apartheid policy even more rigorously. Now along with the blacks, even the coloured were made the direct subjects of these policies, who by then had faced the reparations only indirectly. For instance, through amending the Constitution of 1919, the names of coloured people were removed from the common voter role in mid 1950s. The decolonization followed by the Second World War supported the anti-racism policies but the white regime in the South Africa completely rejected the question of human rights for all and rather chose to justify the apartheid policies on the principles of multiculturalism, ethnic nationalities and separate development. To counter these moves of white rulers, the movement got even more intensified with the international support. The Defiance Campaign against past laws got massive support in all corners of the country. The ANC, the South African Congress of Trade Unions (COSATU), Coloured People’s Congress, South African Indian Congress and the Congress of Democrats came together in one alliance and formed the Congress Alliance.
This alliance adopted the freedom charter in June 1955 and it became one of the most important documents of freedom struggle. After the incident of Sharpeville firing, in which 69 anti-pass protesters were shot dead by the police in March 1960, a state of emergency was imposed in the Union of South Africa and the state repression was even more intensified and a number of organizations were banned. During this phase of massive unrest, finally, the British Crown handed over the powers to the white people and in 1961, the Union of South Africa was declared an independent state and it was called the Republic of South Africa (RSA).
Republic of South Africa and Apartheid Rule As an outcome of the various kinds of movements of 1940s and 1950s to demand the rights of black and non-white people, after the declaration of the RSA in 1961, the apartheid and segregation policies were implemented even on a greater scale and in a more systematic manner. In fact the RSA did not even apply for commonwealth membership to avoid the international pressure to abolish apartheid. By the end of 1963, all organizations involved in struggle for liberation were banned and prominent leaders including Nelson Mandela was sent to prison. It however increased the intensity of the movement and the ANC along with other organizations, gave up the idea of peaceful demonstration and adopted the violent means of struggle. In August 1967, first military confrontation took place between white security forces and ANC led alliance which was supported by the Zimbabwean People’s Revolutionary Army.
The decade of 1970s was remarkable for sustained anti apartheid struggle In the 1960s blacks and non white people of the region saw unprecedented frenzy. As a result of continuing state repression the missions in exile began playing a larger role. Black trade unions also sprung back to life due to the oil crisis destabilizing the capitalist economies in 1973, a sustained anti apartheid struggle began in the year 1976.
What started with Soweto school students rejecting apartheid education soon took shape of a nationwide youth movement. By 1979 students had organized themselves as Congress of South African Students and college and university students (Azanian Students Organization). By the 1980’s the struggle had turned into and armed one with mass mobilization and international support.
All these factors along with widespread resistance to while rule, fall of colonial establishments, and the end of Zimbabwe’s minority regime in 1980, South Africa remained the final the last stronghold of white supremacy. The government decided to adopt a two pronged approach to tackle the international pressure which was steadily increasing. They introduced some reforms to ease of the pressure. On the other hand they began militarizing the society. The intension was to destroy organized resistance but gain international support by the way of some reforms. In order to pacify the labour unions the government granted recognition to them. The constitution allowed limited participation of the minorities in the parliament. Indian and black people were now accepted in some roles and offices of the parliament.
These insignificant attempts were however rejected by the masses and they boycotted the elections. By the 1980s, the movement had grown stronger and unified. The people now openly demanded freedom for political prisoners and community mobilization was more organized. The movement was gaining international momentum and the anti apartheid cause was a global one now.
Internal resistance gave way to strengthened support. The international community extended its support by way of sanctions and boycotts by countries as well as the United Nations. In 1989 when FW de Klerk took over as State President, he lifted the ban on liberations movements and freed the political prisoners. One among them was Nelson Mandela. An important reason for this was the international pressure in for of economic, cultural, business and other sanctions. Most significant support for the movement came from the Socialist and Non Aligned Countries. Peaceful Transfer of Power On 6 th August 1990 the African National Congress (ANC) and the National Party (NP) met to discuss the fate of political prisoners.
It was decided that the release will begin from 1st September 1990. With the aim of ‘moving as speedily as possible towards a negotiated peaceful political settlement’ the ANC decided to suspend armed action. This was a definite step towards paving the way for negotiations for a new constitution.The ‘Inkathagate Scandal’ came to light in June 1991. This episode made serious revelations about the role of the South African Defence Force in the death squads and the ongoing violence in the country. As a result, the African National Congress suspended all meetings with the establishment. The National Peace Accord is signed on September 14 and was the first multi-party agreement.
The African National Congress (ANC) made preparations for the All Party Congress (APC) to be held on 29-30 November, 1991 and was attended by twenty parties. The All Party Congress emerged from the meeting at the All Party Congress be The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA). After referendum was held on 17 March 1992 the NP government received unprecedented support in favour of social and political reforms. The ANC presented the proposals for an Interim Media Structure on the 23 rd of March. These proposals strongly argued for the need of Independent Media.
The central argument of the proposal was that the media plays a central role in setting the political stage. It recommended the setting up of the Independent Media Commission. Soon an initial agreement was reached after negotiations. As per the agreement, an interim government was to emerge.
First there was to be the formation of a Transitional Executive Council (TEC). After that the elections would take place and an interim government and constituent assembly would be formed. The TEC would comprise of various parties and would function in close coordination with the parliament. Important functions of the government would be carried out by committees with executive powers formed within the TEC. On 15 th May, the CODESA II faced an impasse on the matter of the constitution-making body. In order to adopt a constitution specific majority votes were required. In this situation the ANC came forward with a proposal of compromise after discussions with other members of the Patriotic Front.
However, after ten days on 26 th May, National Negotiations Consultative Forum of the ANC withdrew the compromise position. While these proceedings were going on to reach a democratic solution to the deadlock, a massacre of more than forty people occurred at Boipatong, in the month of June. In mid July, An unparalleled Mass Action campaign was launched by the Tripartite Alliance (the ANC, the SACP, and the Congress of South African Trade Unions). The alliance declared a month of rolling mass action to ensure that its demands are met. In August 1992, The United Nations Security Council called for a special debate to address the issue of widespread violence in South Africa. As a result the UN invoked a special resolution 765 that called for a special representative of the Secretary General to visit South Africa. In September a National Working Committee of the ANC asked its Secretary General to open dialogue with the apartheid regime.
This dialogue between the two sides resulted in the apartheid regime and the ANC arrive at a Record of Understanding. This Record of Understanding intended to achieve consensus on issues relating to the Constitutional Assembly, interim government, political prisoners, problematic hostels, dangerous weapons, and mass action. In November, the ANC and the NP also arrive at an agreement to restart negotiations. The ANC began meetings with the members of the Tripartite Alliance, the Patriotic Front, the DP, and the Afrikaner Volksunie (AVU) to focus on negotiations and the need to curb violence. Through this meeting the ANC emerged as a flexible party willing to make compromises for the sake of arriving at a solution by adopting a position paper on strategic perspectives.
In early March of 1993 the Negotiations Planning Conference was called at the World Trade Centre in Kempton Park, Johannesburg. Twenty-six parties, administration, organizations, and traditional leaders attend. A resolution calling for the resumption of negotiations is adopted. In April the same year, The Tripartite Alliance decided on the demands that they need to put forth. The TA demanded that there should be an immediate announcement of an election date, that the Transitional Executive Council (TEC) be installed as a matter of urgency, and that all armed formations be placed under immediate joint multi-party control.
While they had a flexible approach as far as their demands were concerned the ANC called for the negotiations to be sped up. Technical committees in the Multi-Party Negotiations process were formed and the Planning Committee proposed presented its report on violence, the Independent Electoral Commission, state and statutorily controlled media, repressive and discriminatory legislation, and the TEC and its sub-councils. The Negotiating Council also decided to establish six Technical Committees to look into the various issues. The Technical Committees had six members each. The members could not be representatives of any political organizations or parties. This was an important change from the earlier way of working during the CODESA period and ensured more credibility. In May 1993, the Negotiating Council discussed a detailed report by the Planning Committee to try to hasten the interim government. The report proposed the setting up of two advanced Technical Committees.
The Negotiating Council asked the Technical Committee on Constitutional Matters to prepare a draft on transitional constitution that will facilitate the drafting and adoption of a final, democratic constitution by an elected Constitutional Assembly. In June, the Negotiating Council unanimously adopted a resolution declaring a Declaration on the suspension of hostilities, armed struggle, and violence. The Negotiating Council called for the establishment of Independent Electoral Commission and the Independent Media commission. The Negotiating Council accepts the recommendations made by the Technical Committee on Violence and passed a resolution. In July the same year, the Negotiation forum met and decided a new constitution will be formed shortly to provide measures for a strong regional as well as national government. Nelson Mandela and F. W.
de Klerk reached an agreement was reached on the final issues required to complete the interim constitution in November. These agreements later came to be known as the ‘Six-Pack’ Agreement. South Africa’s held its first ever non-racial, democratic election in April 1994 and on the 9 th of May, The Constitutional Assembly was established, comprising of 490 democratically elected members. Conclusion Considering the case of South Africa it can be argued that, Social Transformation is the comprehensive study of the entire worth of a given society. It includes evolutionary changes in both structural and functional aspects. Historical events or epistemological break in the society initiates a new kind of transformation in the society. The advent of industrial revolution had started the colonisation process in South Africa. It had reshaped the traditional structure and function of the South African society.
Colonial powers had segregated the indigenous black people and captured the natural and human resources of South Africa. In the early colonisation period, the colonial masters limited their activity to slave trade, farming and extraction of raw material. After the discovery of mineral resources like diamond, gold, copper etc in the region the conflict between black vs. white and white vs.
white as well began. Apart from this evident conflict the development of industry, mining, transport systems, administration and militarization led to the emergence of the concept of nationalism and nation state. After the end of Second Anglo-Boer war the Union of South Africa came into existence. The main goal of the union was to gain more and more rights for the white people and devoid the black populace of their land holding and even basic human rights.
Although South Africa became a republic in the late 20 th century, it was still not democratic for the black people. After Second World War, white nationalism against British colonial rule gained momentum. Alongside, Black Nationalism was also taking shape. It was only after the National Peace Accord facilitated peaceful transition and subsequent release of Nelson Mandela, the end of apartheid actually began in South Africa. However, the majority of black people are still waiting for actual social and economic rights to be realized.