The knee is the largest joint of the body and mostly the site of pain and injury in athletes. It consists of the medial and lateral condyles at the upper end of the tibia and the same condyles of the lower femur. The stability of the knee is due mainly to four ligaments (medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, anterior cruciate ligament and posterior cruciate ligament) 1.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is an important knee-stabilizing ligament that is frequently injured in sportspersons and trauma victims 2. The primary function of the ACL is to control anterior translation of the tibia. The ACL also is a secondary restraint to tibial rotation as well as varus or valgus stress 3.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament, for which reconstruction is frequently performed. Each year, more than 100,000 new cases of ACL injury occur (most of these injuries occur as non-contact injury) with an incidence of one in 3500, and approximately 75,000 ACL reconstructions are performed in the United States 4,5,6.
In the study of Alrubayyi et al. 7 who aimed to estimate the prevalence and mechanism of anterior cruciate ligament injury among Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. it was found that the most common injury of ACL was sport (n=181). ACL injury occurred due to a rapid increase in running (n=18) and due to sudden deacceleration ( n=20). Sixteen were listed as road traffic accidents and 14 was related to their work.
Another study carried out by Alghamdi et al. 8 it was found that, the prevalence of Cruciate Ligaments Injury among Physical Education Students of Umm Al-Qura University was 5.3%, most of the injuries involved the anterior cruciate ligaments, which were 60%, while 10% were involved the posterior and the remaining 30% do not know the injured ligament, right knee was involved in 70% injuries while 30% were left knee.
Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are instantly disabling, take a significant period of time to rehabilitate, and are often linked with other associated articular injuries, resulting in an increased risk of early onset posttraumatic osteoarthritis regardless of the treatment applied 9. ACL reconstruction restores rotational stability to the knee, but it remains unknown whether it prevents knee joint degeneration 10.
Several anatomic and non-anatomic risk factors are associated with increased risk of suffering ACL injury; such as female sex, specific measures of bony geometry of the knee joint, familial predisposition and prior reconstruction of the ACL 11.
In this study we will address the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries and its association with different types of knee injuries in attendees of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, KSA.