The international aid that flows from the developed countries to the developing countries increases every year; and therefore, has led to the question whether international aid has a significant impact on the development of recipient countries. On the other hand, the question has arisen about the effects of international aid on the degree of oppression in developing countries.
Some critics of international aid programs argue that international aid funds regularly serve as support for corrupt governments and inefficient bureaucracies (Alesina, et al., 2002) This study tries to analyze the effects of international aid on oppression. This research concludes that international aid leads to less control of the oppressors and a higher level of oppression in developing countries.
A standard definition of oppression, is “the exercise of tyranny by a ruling group” (Young, 2004). An alternative definition of the concept of oppression can be the abuse of power for a private benefit. Oppression is widespread in developing countries, in forms of marginalization, powerlessness and cultural imperialism. Due to the lack of other resources, the largest investments in developing countries, especially those with the lowest GDP per capita, are mainly financed by international aid.
The problem of oppression has been ignored by official international cooperation organizations, not only at the level of project implementation but also at a second level analyzing the country jointly. For a long period of time, officials in charge of international aid did not consider themselves responsible for improving conditions for the control of oppression in developing countries. In relation to prior criticism, the idea of ??abuse of authority certainly implies a deviation from the norm, however this does not necessarily lead to presupposing that the norm is a legal one. The norm can be a moral one, so the appropriate role of the holders is based on the fundamental ethical principles. Oppression is carried out through the implementation of public policies or in this case the lack thereof. In many of the receiving countries, international aid is influenced by extensive oppression. Even throughout my research it is not possible to obtain an accurate picture of how widespread the oppression is, but there is no doubt that a significant amount of aid is used in direct forms of bribery to keep governmental authorities quiet and allowing international donors to impose their own agendas on developing countries.
Nor is there any doubt that, as a result of political and personal pressure, a large amount of the resources are often used for other purposes than those officially agreed upon. Transparency International argues that oppression in the Third World has increased significantly in the last 10 to 15 years (transparencyinternational.org). Broad oppression has often been exposed in relation to international aid. This has led to closing different projects and programs. In other cases, donors have preferred to change procedures in order to make acts of oppression more difficult implying that international aid, instead of being channeled through national channels and local authorities, is often placed under the direct control of the donor partners throughout the entire process.
This has reduced the possibilities of misuse of funds but has also limited the possibilities of integrating foreign aid into development efforts for recipient countries, as well as meeting one of the fundamental pillars of the Country Declaration on the effectiveness of aid, which is empowering countries that receive international aid in the empowerment of international cooperation projects. With the general change in the strategies of international aid towards the transfer of responsibilities to the authorities of developing countries, such a procedure is no longer on the agenda. Instead, donors should focus on strengthening a oppression-free administrative culture and encourage recipient countries to introduce procedures that prevent corrupt behavior. This usually demands the assistance of donors to strengthen the administrative bodies responsible for payments, accounting and auditing, and represents a major challenge for aid. Transferring greater degrees of responsibility to the authorities of the developing countries, also to those responsible for economic management, implies an expansion of the areas where acts of oppression can be committed in many of the countries where oppression is a central aspect of the administrative culture. Foreign aid also weakens and distorts many development initiatives and therefore affects the economic and social development of many countries. In addition, foreign aid contributes to the creation of local aid elites of those whose means of subsistence is based on aid, and that therefore they become a group that will fight to maintain the status quo, and not for an interest to support the development and reduction of poverty in their respective societies, but to maintain the privileges and income acquired. The greatest cost of international aid in oppression is the creation of a vicious circle of aid (Moyo, 2007).
With foreign aid, oppression fosters more oppression, causing nations to fall into the vicious circle of aid. International aid supports corrupt money-providing them free use governments. These corrupt governments interfere with the rule of law, the establishment of transparent civil institutions and the protection of civil liberties, making local and foreign investments in poor countries unattractive. These lower levels of investment reduce economic growth, leading to fewer job opportunities and increasing levels of poverty. In response to the growth of poverty, donors provide more aid, continuing the downward spiral of poverty.
This is the vicious circle of aid that reduces the investment countries need to get out of poverty, instills a culture of dependence, and facilitates rampant and systematic oppression. The vicious circle of aid creates an economic failure in the country’s most dependent on aid. The size of the government is also a major source of oppression. If the concern is to exploit economies of scale in the provision of public services, therefore, it has a low ratio of public service provision per capita, those that demand service could be tempted to bribe, for example “to be in front of the queue”.
However, a relatively large government can also create incentives for oppression, the larger the size of the public sector the greater the possibility of corrupt behavior. In this way, there is no consensus among scholars of this topic in a theoretical way about the relationship of government sizes and oppression. This is reflected in the empirical works of Fisman and Gatti (2002) and Bonaglia et al (2001) whose conclusions are different from Ali and Isse (2003).
Whereas the first study finds that the negative impact of the amounts of government spending and oppression, and the latter reports a positive impact. International aid is like a windfall for recipient countries and creates space for rent seeking behavior. With the lack of government coordination related to the management and implementation of international aid, the effect of this aid on oppression has worsened. With these results, we can conclude with some recommendations on how to minimize the effects of international aid and oppression in recipient countries.
But each country has its own characteristics in relation to the coordination of International Aid and also its mechanisms regarding oppression. ConclusionThe purpose of this work is to find out what the effect of International Aid is oppression in developing countries is. With the increase in international aid from developing countries to developed countries, it also indicates the likelihood of increased oppression in developing countries due to the weakened quality of institutions in developing countries. With the use of international aid data, we find that international aid has a negative relationship with oppression.
With the increase in international aid, the control of oppression in developing countries will be reduced. This correlation is negative due to the weakness of government control over this issue, including weak monitoring and evaluation of aid projects. The other important factor is related to the fact that public officials in receiving countries have an insufficient salary that creates income seeking behavior. In developing countries , the coordination of aid is dispersed in different Ministries with weak coordination that can create space for oppression in international aid that can lead to oppression on a large scale.
The negative effect of international aid and oppression can be avoided by cutting the opportunities for oppression in the international aid mechanisms but once again, the prevention action may differ depending on the characteristics of the countries. Alesina, Alberto, and Beatrice Weder. 2002.
Do corrupt governments receive less foreign aid? American Economic Review 92(4): 1126-1137.