The fresh matter rocks of Potwar upland and sub-Himalayan hills are referred to as “Siwaliks series”. The Siwaliks rocks by Colbert (1935) are choked with vertebrates’ fossils of Himalaya, Sindh, Perim, Islands, Baluchistan and Union of Burma. The fossils aren’t older than Miocene epoch. Pilgrim (1913) divided the Siwaliks rocks into 3 sub-divisions i.e. higher Siwaliks (Boulder Conglomerate Zone, Pinjor and Tatrot Zone) middle Siwaliks (Dhokpathan and Nagri Zone) and lower Siwaliks (Chinji Zone and Kamlial Zone).
The excellent scientific description concerning Siwaliks was given by huntsman and Cautely (1847) within the book “Fauna Antique Sivalensis” the first fossils of Bovids were familiar two hundred million years past (Savage and Long, 1986). The Boselaphines initial seem in Pakistan, China, Africa and Europe in early Miocene epoch. From Boselaphines the Bovine seems within the late Miocene epoch (Vrba et al 2000)
Lydekker (1876) fellow huntsman and Caulty (1847) work and publication series of comprehensive treatise in “Paleontological India” and lots of different shorter contributions were additionally created within the “Geological survey of India”
Iqbal and Shah (1980) prompt that the Siwaliks series are the planet illustrious rock containing vertebrates fossils. Following Colbert (1935) the various Siwaliks teams were studied by the various paleontologists. AN exclusive study of Siwaliks Proboscidea has been created by Osborn (1936), Nafees (1984) and Sawar (1988). Siwalik rodents were studied by Nadeem (1989), order Perissodactyla by Forseten (1968), order Artiodactyla by Sarwar (1988), Akhtar and Sarwar (1987).
In early twentieth century Pilgrim (1917) worked on Siwalik fauna and wrote completely different articles on varied vertebrate teams. Several genera and species were criticized by Pilgrim that was already reported by varied paleontologists.
The biostratigraphy of Siwaliks Hills was initial investigated by pilgrim (1913). The work of Pilgrim was reviewed by Mathew (1929). On the idea of fossils of Hipparion within the Siwalik North America Mathew (1929) placed Siwalik series high within the geologic time because the different do before. Huntsman (1845) and Pilgrim (1907, 1937, 1939) studied the Bovids of Siwaliks very well. Bovids are mentioned by Nanda (1979, 1982) and Sawar (1991).
The fossils of Bovids having giant size teeth that are hypsodont and furrowed enamel surface that indicates that they go after a a lot of fibrous and gritty diet in all probability grass (Barry et all, 2002). The Bovinae these days Miocene epoch was settled within the drier setting (Jarman, 1947).
The information of Siwalik vertebrates has greatly been extended by Dr. Guy E. Pilgrim (1913) throughout early twentieth century. The progressive modification in Siwalik climate is from a comparatively dry plains setting to a dampish and forest setting which ends in developments of terribly numerous Siwalik fauna (Colbert, 1935).
Pilgrim (1913) opened the sphere within the diversity and study of the Siwalik series. Throughout the Miocene epoch through epoch and, the epoch, deposit deposits the uplift of the range from north to the east that is that the main supply of the Siwalik beds.
The Siwalik space of Pakistan are explored accurately by Akhtar (1992) as reaction of this several new species has been originated Miotragocerus dhokpthanensis, Pachyportax giganteus, Selenopotax dhokpathanensis, Proamphibos dhokawanensis, Bubalusbathygnathus, Bubalus jarikasensis,Boskashmerikus, Indoredunca gaalensis, bovid intermidius, antelope padriensis.
Within the Yankee menagerie range of specimens were unearthed from Nagri villages and neighborhood close to Nagri convalescent homes (Colbert, 1935).
Bovids in Siwaliks were methodically investigated within the Yankee menagerie by the pioneer (1913)
In the assortment below study there square measure seven species happiness to 6 genera, three sub families, 2 families and 2 orders i.e. order Perissodactyla and order Artiodactyla. The specimens below study were collected from “Bun Amir Khatoon” that is enclosed in middle Siwaliks formations. The collections include isolated teeth of jowl so.
Hipparion antelopium is characterized by generally medium sized premolars and molars. The enamel lining of the fosette is relatively complicated as compare to H. Theobald. The protocone is oval in form and linguistically compressed. The Hipparion 1st appeared in North America, migrated to Asia and become extinct in Pliocene epoch.
The cheek teeth in Hipparion Theobald square measure massive in size hypsodont and square normally contour. The enamel border is straightforward within the central cavities. The protocone is isolated pillar like structure, laterally compressed.
The term Siwalik Hills as understood by huntsman (1868) comprise the sub-mountainous region on the Southern flakes of the mountain range, extending from the Indus River on the North to Brahmaputra on the South.
Matthew (1929), sauce (1935) outline this term i.e. Siwalik Hills to the North-Western sides of Sub-Himalayas which incorporates the realm between Attock (Pakistan) and Shimla hills (India) still as Potwar tableland.
Pasco (1920) and Pilgrim (1919) have tried to clarify the history of deposition of the Siwalik deposit. Per these employees a good stream “Siwalik river” flowed northward into the remnants of the Tethys Ocean.
Pilgrim (1913) was the primary to analyze the Siwalik biostratigraphy. He divided the Siwalik into lower, middle, higher Siwalik. Lower Siwalik contains of Kamlial and Chinji, middle Siwalik comprises Dhokpathan and Nagri formation. Whereas higher Siwalik contains Pinjor, Tatrot and Boulder conglomerates.
This study is predicated on the specimens collected from roll emir Khatoon, district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. It’s enclosed within the middle Siwalik i.e. Nagri and Dhokpathan formation. Roll emir Khatoon is thirty three metric linear unit from Chakwal.
The Nagri outcrops exhibit cyclic alternation of sand stone with subordinate clay and conglomerates. The sand stone area unit grey, medium to course grained in some places dark-blue grey, dull red, chalky and is poorly cemented. Subordinate clay is sandy, silty, brown reddish grey or pale orange whereas conglomerates encompass pebbles of igneous rocks and Eocene sedimentary rock.
Dhokpathan formation is created by monotonous cyclic alternation of sand stone and clay, and stone white, dark-brown grey, light gray, sometimes dark-brown grey, Venetian red, brown or buff, light-green inexperienced, gray, thick bedded, chalky moderately cemented, soft; cross bedded; clay orange brown, dull red, sometimes rusty brown, yellow grey or chocolate, yellow. Minor intercalations of raw sienna silt stone. It’s Associate in Nursing extravagantly remains space. In line with pilgrim (1910) Dhokpathan is epoch in age.
MATERIALS AND strategies
The study relies upon the gathering of fossils comprising of 13 specimens. These are collected from “Bun emeer Khatoon” district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. These specimens describe here contains of mandibles utterly isolated higher and lower teeth. The crowns of just about all teeth were part or utterly coated with sediments and cement. The embedded further sediments were removed and punctiliously procured with the assistance of chisels, choose head hammers and varied styles of needles. The onerous substance material was removed by victimisation acid, acid and vitriol. Varied styles of adhesive materials like epoxy steel, araldite and Elfy were wont to fix the broken piece of specimens. Boiling in fuel oil additionally applied.
Images were infatuated the assistance of “Cannon” camera victimisation accent lenses for smaller specimens. Distinctionicongraph and chemicals were used for film developing and photo printing. Vernier micrometer was used for the measurements of the specimens so as to formulate the tables. Every specimen shows each the gathering year likewise because the serial variety of that year e.g. 05/11.