The fireflies of the same species as

The fireflies radiate light in a flashing pattern which is a pleasant visual to the sight. Nearly thousand species of fireflies exist and most of them emit short and periodic flash.

Each species of fireflies have their own pattern of flashing. The light emitted by firefly is by a process called bioluminescence. The purpose for flashing of light are observed to attract either prey or partner for mating and also as a remainder for the predators of fireflies bitter taste. The female fireflies would respond to the male fireflies of the same species as they would have similar flashing pattern but certain female species like Photuris would copy other female fireflies pattern and emit the same in order attract those male fireflies who would assume those signals for mating and would eat them.The light intensity I and distance are inversely proportional to each other, I ? 1/r2 . The light is also being absorbed by the air so the light intensity reduces as the distance increases. Due to these two reasons the fireflies emitted light is restricted to be viewed to few hundred meters at night which is sufficient for them to communicate amongst each other.

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The objective function which is to be optimized is associated with the flashing pattern of the fireflies.BASIC FIREFLY ALGORITHM:The basic pseudo code of firefly algorithm is as followsObjective function f(x), x = (x1, …, xd)TInitial population generation of fireflies xi (i = 1, 2, …, n)Light intensity Ii at xi is determined by f (xi)Light absorption coefficient ? is definedwhile (t


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