The Use andApplication of Open Source Integrated Library SystemThakare Nanabhau Bapu KondagurleGopal Laxman Mob.
No.-8007855816 Mob.No.-9405601062 Librarian Librariannanab[email protected] joshaba89@gmail.
com Arts,Commerce and Science Dr.D.Y.Patil Institute ofEngineering College Onde,Tal-Vikramgad, Management andResearch, Dist-Palghar Akurdi,Pune ( Maharashtra, India) ( Maharashtra, India) Abstract-The Open SourceSoftware (OSS), term was coined by Eric Raymond; it is software for which thesource code is freely and publicly available, though the specific licensing agreementvaries as to what one is allowed to do with that code. OSS become very famousworldwide from the last few years open source software has triggered a vastvolume of research and has entered the mainstream software market and availablein various computer languages.
Library professional are not lagging behind withthe hour, simultaneously they develop their own in different skills from daily.Open source software requires a greaterdegree of computing responsibility than commercial software. Libraryprofessionals do not think seriously about the advantages of open sourcesoftware for automation and hence are reluctant to use it. They do not have theexpertise to support open source software.
Paper highlights major open sourcelibrary software.Keywords-Open Source Software, Integrated LibrarySystem, Academic Library ,OSS history. 1.
Introduction-However the Free software FS, term was given byRichard Stallman in 1984, it is the software which can be obtained at zero costi.e. software which gives the user certain freedoms. FS provides onlyexecutable file to the end user, through public domain and end user is free touse that executable software in any way, but the user is not free to modifythat software.Similarly the alternative term Free/ Libre and Open SourceSoftware (FLOSS) refers to software licenses which give users four essential„freedoms. These include running the program for any purpose, studying theworkings of the program, and modify the program to suit specific needs. Oncecan also redistribute copies of the program at no charge or for a fee, andfinally to improve the program, and release the improved, modified version.2.
History of OpenSource Theopen source movement started in the 1980s with Richard Stallman who resignedfrom MIT founded GNU project. Unix is an operating system, whose functionalityhe wanted to copy and build upon, but it required community effort. Wanting itto be a free software, he created a different kind of copyright license, whichhe termed “copy-left”.
“Milestonesin the history of open source software are:· 1983 – Richard Stallmanformed GNU project· 1985 – Creation of FreeSoftware Foundation· 1991 – Development ofLinux kernel by Linus Torvalds· 1998 – Open SourceInitiative (OSI) formed by Eric Raymond.4. Common OSS licensesSome of the most commonlicenses used for Open Source are:4.1.
GNU General PublicLicense (GPL) – GNU is the most common of OSS licenses, theGPL implements a concept known as “copy left” that attempts to negate copyrightfor the purposes of collaborative software development. Under the GPL license,the code for a GPL-licensed application can be used anywhere in any situation;it can be distributed to anyone as long as the code is included and the GPLlicense is retained; and anyone can create a derivative work from the code andredistribute it, as long as the resulting code is made available and alsolicensed under the GPL. The Affero General Public License is almost identicalto the GPL but includes additional provisions for network access. 4.2.
Creative Commons –CreativeCommons licensing is similar to that of the GPL, but is not designed aroundsoftware. The Creative Commons license was originally designed for othercreative works such as music and film, though it is increasingly utilizedwithin software projects. 4.3. GNU Lesser GeneralPublic License (LGPL)/ Artistic License-LGPLis normally used to designate source code that can be used by applications forwhich a charge is levied, so that this code c an be used incommercial products,hence “lesser”.
The Artistic License is similar and also attempts to mitigatethe fear of using code for commercial purposes. 4.4. Berkley SystemDistribution License (BSD)/ Apache Software License/ MIT License/ NCSA License– The BSD license is basis for many otherlicenses, including Apache Software License/ MIT License/ NCSA License.
It ismainly concerned that the copyright of the code be recognized as belonging withthe creators and that this copyright be promulgated to applications built withthe source code. The BSD license, like almost all OSS licenses, also specifiesthat the copyright holder is not liable for the consequences of using thesource code. 4.
5. OCLC ResearchPublic License – TheOCLC license ensures that modifications are reported back to OCLC if the intentis to redistribute the changes externally.5. Open Source SoftwareOpensource software is where the source code of programs is made freely availablefor anyone to change and distribute providing they abide by the accompanyinglicence.
This differs from closed source or propriety software which may onlybe obtained by some form of payment, either by purchase or by “leasing”. Thedifference between open and closed source can be characterized by the wordfreedom: users of open source software have the freedom to alter the sourcecode while users of closed source software do not.5.1.
Advantages of OpenSource SoftwareThebenefits with Open Source Software are as follows:· Lowersoftware costs: Open source solutions generallyrequire no licensing fees. Expenditures can be for media, documentation, andsupport, if required.· Simplifiedlicense management: Obtain the softwareonce and install it as many times and in as many locations as you need. There’sno need to count, track, or monitor for license compliance. It providesCollaborative, parallel development involving source code sharing and reuse. · Lowerhardware costs: In general, Linux and open sourcesolutions are elegantly compact and portable, and as a result require lesshardware power to accomplish the same tasks as on conventional servers(Windows, Solaris) or workstations.
So they are less expensive. · Scaling/consolidationpotential: Open source applications and servicescan often scale considerably as they have multiple options for load balancing,clustering.· Support:Open source support is freely available and accessible through the onlinecommunity via the Internet. Many tech companies also support open source withfree online and multiple levels of paid support. · Escapevendor lock-in: Frustration with vendor lock-in isa reality and with ongoing license fees, there is lack of portability and theinability to customize software to meet specific needs.
Open source exists as adeclaration of freedom of choice.· Unifiedmanagement: Specific open source technologiessuch as CIM Common Information Model) and WBEM (Web Based EnterpriseManagement) provide the capability to integrate or consolidate server, service,application, and workstation management for powerful administration. · Qualitysoftware: The peer review process and communitystandards make the open source softwares, quality software.
It gives sharedapproach to problem solving through constant feedback and peer review. The factthat source code is out there for the world to see, tend to drive excellence indesign and efficiency in coding of these softwares. 5.2.
Disadvantages ofOpen Source Software · Possibility of slowerresults due to the rapid development environment leading to the absence offormal management structures.· Open source softwarecan tend to evolve more in line with developers?wishes than the needs of the end user.· Strong user involvement and participationthroughout a project become problematic as users tend to create bureaucracieswhich hamper development. · Rapid releases andtypically more iterations than commercial software creates more managementproblem. Version control systems are required to track multiple revisions. · The user interfaces ofopen source products are not very intuitive. Can be less “user-friendly” andeasy to use because less attention is paid to developing the user interface.
· No single source ofinformation so users have no „definitive?answers to problems.· System deployment and training is often moreexpensive with OSS as it is less intuitive and does not have the usabilityadvantages of proprietary software.6. Open SourceIntegrated Library Systems:6.
1. Koha –Kohasoftware was originally build up and developed in New Zealand by the companycalled as Katipo Communications Limited. The Integrated Library SoftwareSolution was first deployed in the year January, 2000 for Horowhenua Library Trust.Koha is a full featured open sourcelibrary management system and it was initially developed by Harowhenua LibraryTrust, New Zealand in 2000. Now the project has grown as one of the popularOpen Source Library management system by large group of volunteers from variousparts of the world. Software consists of several modules supporting all theactivities of a library: on-line catalog (OPAC), cataloging, authorities’management, circulation, user management, acquisitions, periodicals, reporting,and administration. It is translated in over 100 languages, and is implementedin more than 900 institutions around the world.6.
2. Evergreen- Evergreenis an open source Integrated Library System (ILS) which includes circulationand cataloguing features, OPAC, SIP2.0 support for interaction with managementsoftware and search/retrieval through Z39.50. It is a robust, enterprise levelILS solution developed to be capable of supporting the workload of largelibraries in a fault-tolerant system. It too is standards compliant and usesthe OPAC interface, and offers many features including flexible administration,work-flow customization, and adaptable programming interfaces. It features theOpen Scalable Request Framework (OpenSRF) that allows developers to createapplications for Evergreen with a minimum of knowledge of its structure. ItOperates on Debian or Ubuntu Linux servers.
Evergreen ILS is deployed worldwide in approximately 1,800libraries, and is used to power a number of statewide consortial catalogs.6.3.
OpenBiblio – OpenBiblio is an open source Integrated Library System. The software is popular with small and rurallibrariesworldwide due to its simplicity,extensive language support, and gooddocumentation . OpenBiblio is an easy to use, opensource, automated library system written in PHP containing OPAC, circulation,cataloging, and staff administration functionality for the particular interestto small libraries with limited technical expertise and resources of less than50,000 volumes.6.4.
New GenLib (NGL) – NewGenLib version 1.0 was released in March 2005. On 9January 2008, NewGenLib was declared free and open-source under GNUGPL.1 The latest version of NewGenLib is 3.1.
1 released on 16 April2015 New GenLib is an outcome ofcollaboration between Verus and Kesavan Institute of Information and Knowledgemanagement in Hyderabad, India. NGL is developed and maintained by VerusSolutions and Kesavan Institute has provided the domain expertise. It providesmany basic ILS functions as well as having several social media functions builtin. NGL comprises many open source components, chief among which are ApacheTomcat, Postgre SQL Database and the well-known search engine SOLR. New GenLibis licensed under the GNU version 3.
It supports MARC21, OAIPMH and z184.108.40.206. SOPAC (SocialOnline Public Access Catalog) – SOPACis a module for the Drupal CMS that provides true integration of librarycatalog system with the power of the Drupal content management system whileallowing users to tag, rate, and review your holdings. User input is thenincorporated into the discovery index so that SOPAC becomes a trulycommunity-driven catalog system7. Digital/ElectronicLibrary Softwares:7.
1. Dinest– Dienstis a system for configuring a set of individual services running on distributedservers to cooperate in providing the services of a digital library. It hasbeen written in PERL. It works more comfortably on Unix/Linux run webservers. 7.2.
Dspace – DSpaceis a digital library system to capture, store, index, preserve, andredistribute the intellectual output of a university’sresearch faculty in digital formats. Dspace has been developed jointly by MITLibraries and Hewlett-Packard (HP). It is now freely available to researchinstitutions worldwide as an open source system. 7.3. Eprints – Eprintsis generic archive software under development by the University of Southampton.It is intended to create a highly configurable webbased archive. EPrintsprimary goal is to be set up as an open archive for research papers, but itcould be easily used for other things such as images, research data, audioarchives – anything that can be stored digitally by making changes in configuration.
It works on Linux O/s and it needs MySQL, Perl modules and Apache webserver. 7.4.Fedora – Fedorais an Open-Source digital repository management system based on the FlexibleExtensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture (Fedora). The Fedorarepository system is open source software licensed under the Mozilla PublicLicense. It requires Sun Java Software Development Kit, v1.4.
Optionally onecan use MySql or Oracle 9i to create relational database. It works both onWindows and UNIX versions of software. 7.
5. Greenstone – Greenstoneis a suite of software for building and distributing digital librarycollections. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing. Itis available for both Windows and Linux O/S. It requires Perl software to buildcollections. 7.6.
Invenio –Inveniosoftware developed by, maintained by, and used at, the CERN Document Server. Itallows to run electronic preprint or digital library server, online librarycatalogue or a document system on the web. It complies with the Open Archives Initiativemetadata harvesting protocol (OAI-PMH) and uses MARC 21 as its underlyingbibliographic standard. It is a free software issued under GNU-GPL license.8 Some importantpopular Library Management Applications8.1. ATutorhttp://atutor.
ca/ – ATutor’sis a Open Source technology and cost effective tool for both small and largeorganizations presenting their instructional materials on the Web, ordelivering fully independent online courses. It is a Open Source Web-basedLearning Content Management System (LCMS) designed with accessibility andadaptability in mind. 8.2. CORALhttps://erm.library.nd.edu/ – CORALis an open source Electronic Resources Management System developed at theUniversity of Notre Dame licensed under a GPLv3 license.
It is web-based andruns in an Apache, MySQL, PHP environment. It delivers modules to manageresources, licensing, organizations (publishers, vendors, societies, etc.), andstatistics. These modules link resources to licenses and providers, but theycan be implemented independently. It also allows integration with differentlink resolvers (currently only SFX).
8.3. CUFTShttp://researcher.sfu.ca/cufts – CUFTSis open source software developed at the Simon Fraser University Library. Itwas designed for use in a consortial environment, but can also be used byindividual libraries.
CUFTS is an Online Serials Management System, whichincludes a knowledgebase of full-text journal collections, a searchable A-Zdatabase of databases (the CUFTS Resource Database or CRDB) and A-Z journaldatabase (the CUFTS Journal Database or CJDB), MARC records for each title,direct to article OpenURL link resolving (GODOT), and electronic resourcemanagement (ERM) tools. 8.4. Drupalhttps://www.
drupal.org/- Drupalis a free and open-source content management framework written in PHP anddistributed under the GNU General Public License that allows to easilyorganize, manage and publish content, with an endless variety of customization.It is a content management platform powering millions of websites andapplications. It?sbuilt, used, and supported by an active and diverse community of people aroundthe world. 8.
5. GODOT http://researcher.sfu.ca/godot– GODOTis open source software developed at the Simon Fraser University Library. It isFull-text Links from CUFTS, Interlibrary Holdings Locator. GODOT providesdirect links to fulltext collections, using the CUFTS knowledge base, and alsoreveals holdings in the library catalogue or in other locations. It also embedslinks in library’s citation databases or other resources.
8.6. Joomlawww.joomla.org/ – Joomlais a Content Management System (CMS), which enables to build Web sites andpowerful online applications.
The core Joomla framework enables developers toquickly and easily build Inventory control systems; Data reporting tools;Application bridges; Custom product catalogs; Integrated e-commerce systems;Complex business directories; Reservation systems and Communication tools. 8.7. Manhattanhttp://manhattan.sourceforge.net/- Manhattanwas developed by Steven Narmontas, head of the Educational Technology Center atWestern New England College.
The first version of the system was used at thecollege back in 1997. In October of 2000, the software was released in itsentirety on the Internet for free under the GNU General Public License.Manhattan Virtual Classroom is a fast, stable and effective Course ManagementSystem that runs on Linux and other Unix-like systems. It’s written entirely inthe C programming language and is database-free software.
Today, Manhattan isin use around the world, and continues to be actively developed. 8.8. Moodlehttps://moodle.org/ – Moodleis freely Open Source software for learning, under the GNU General PublicLicense designed to provide educators, administrators and learners with asingle robust, secure and integrated system to create personalized learningenvironments. Moodle is built by the Moodle project which is led andcoordinated by Moodle HQ, an Australian company of 30 developers which isfinancially supported by a network of 60 Moodle Partner service companiesworldwide.
It provides the most flexible tool-set to support both blendedlearning and 100% online courses.9. Conclusion-OpenSource Softwares are dominating the infrastructure of Internet and Web servicesand present Libraries also. OSS has continued to grow and so come the opensource applications in Libraries.
These softwares and applications are morestable, secure, auditable and extensible than the commercial alternatives.Moreover using OSS guarantees that the standards and protocols used in thelibrary will be open to examination and helps the library community to buildupon previous success.References1. Barahona,J.M.G.
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