The concepts of mental disorder in general and depression in particular remain unclear and no consensual definitions are yet well-known although broadly discussed in various studies (Widiger and Sankis, 2000). However, scholars define depression differently according to their intent, contexts and their perceptions. For instance, Ness and Ellsworth (2009) contested that depression embodies a break dawn in a progressed and otherwise adaptive response to shortage or loss; it is a mental state in which one suffers sadness (Sharma and Pandey, 2017); it is a form of mental health problem (Zivin, 2009) and it is a common but serious mental illness typically marked by sad or anxious feelings (National Institute of Mental Health, 2009). American Psychiatric Association (2013) describes the word “depression” as a condition that is marked by sadness, emptiness, hopelessness, and loss of interest for most of the day.
There are many symptoms of depression though differ from person to person. However, Eller and Veldi (2006) described depression as continuous worried or absence of good feelings, feelings of desperateness, feelings of wrong, worthlessness and/or helplessness, bad temper, anxiety, and loss of interest in activities or hobbies once enjoyable. In addition, Kumer et al. (2009) also contested that depression is considered as a mood disorder. According to Marcus et al. (2012), there are 4 groups of symptoms of depression on which the problem is appeared: emotional, cognitive, motivation and physical. They also latter described the term “depression” as absence of interest or happiness, sadness, feelings of fault or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or hungriness, dangerous sleepiness, and lack of concentration. A person could be referred to be depressed if he/she displays one or amalgamation of the following variables-absence of good mood, lack of pleasure, feelings of in responsibility, lack of self-confident, loss of eating interest, un even slipping hours or un able to concentrate on an issue(Marcus et al., 2014).
Like depression, no consensus definition given to anxiety. However, Prior scholars in the field of psychology define “anxiety” as their understanding on the issue itself. To this effect, Stossell (2006) defined anxiety as a function of biology and philosophy, body and mind, instinct and reason, personality and culture. It is also experienced at psychic and psychological levels. It is scientifically measurable at the molecular level and the physiological level. It is produced by nature and nurture. It is also refers to a psychological phenomenon and a sociological phenomenon. In computer terms, it is both a hardware problem (wired badly) and a software problem (run faulty logic that make think anxiously)
It is a psychological and physiological state characterized by mental, somatic, emotional, and social modules. These components combine to create an unpleasant feeling that is typically associated with discomfort, distress, or worry and stress (Seligman et al., 2000).
Anxiety is more associated with automatic arousal, skeletal muscle tension and situational aspects, whereas stress is more related to irritability, impatience, and difficulty in relaxing. It is a response of body to a perceived threat which is triggered by an individual’s beliefs, feelings, and thoughts and is characterized by worried thoughts, tension, increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, pulse rate, sweating, and difficulty of swallowing, dizziness, and chest pain. Worldwide about 272.2 million people have anxiety disorder about 14.0% of the European population (Wittchen et al., 2011). Literatures indicated that there are various predictors of anxiety. For instance, Yeshaw and Mosie (2016) dectated that anxiety was found to be associated with age, educational status, marital status, salary, duration of sleeping time, job satisfaction, conflict with colleagues, alcohol use, and khat chewing. However, salary, khat chewing, conflict with colleagues, and job satisfaction of respondents were significantly associated with anxiety at their final model.