Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.0 INTRODUCTION21.1 Definition of computer security risks,security measure,etc. PAGEREF _Toc524331347 h 21.2 Types of security risks PAGEREF _Toc524331348 h 21.2.1 Malicious codes(Virus,Worm and Trojan Horse) PAGEREF _Toc524331349 h 21.2.2 Unauthorized Access and Use PAGEREF _Toc524331350 h 31.2.3 Hardware Theft PAGEREF _Toc524331351 h 31.2.4 Software Theft PAGEREF _Toc524331352 h 41.2.5 Information Theft PAGEREF _Toc524331353 h 41.3 Types of Security Measure PAGEREF _Toc524331354 h 51.3.1 Data Backup PAGEREF _Toc524331355 h 51.3.2 Cryptography PAGEREF _Toc524331356 h 51.3.3 Anti-virus PAGEREF _Toc524331357 h 51.3.4 Anti-spyware PAGEREF _Toc524331358 h 61.3.5 Firewall PAGEREF _Toc524331359 h 61.3.6 Physical Access Control PAGEREF _Toc524331360 h 71.3.7 Human Aspects:Awareness PAGEREF _Toc524331361 h 72.0 REPORT PAGEREF _Toc524331362 h 82.1 Three Computer Security Risk PAGEREF _Toc524331363 h 82.2 Security Measure to Overcome The Security Risks PAGEREF _Toc524331364 h 93.0 CONCLUSION PAGEREF _Toc524331365 h 124.0 REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc524331366 h 13
1.0 INTRODUCTION1.1 Definition of computer security risks,security measure,etc. Security risk is any event or action that could cause a loss or damage to computer or mobile device hardware,software,data,information or processing capability.
Security measure is a measure taken as a precaution against theft,espionage,sabotages or danger.
1.2 Types of security risks 1.2.1 Malicious codes Malicious code is the kind of harmful computer code or web script designed to create system vulnerabilities leading to back doors, security breaches, information and data theft, and other potential damages to files and computing systems. It’s a type of threat that may not be blocked by antivirus software on its own. According to Kaspersky Lab, not all antivirus protection can treat certain infections caused by malicious code, which is different from malware. Malware specifically refers to malicious software, but malicious code includes website scripts that can exploit vulnerabilities in order to upload malware.There are three types of malicious codes which is virus,worm and Trojan horse.
Virus is a program that infects other ones, by adding its code to them in order to gain control when infected files are run. This simple definition allows identifying the main action performed by any virus: infection. ( BIBLIOGRAPHY l 17417 Kaspersky Lab User Guide. (2015). Russia: Kaspersky Internet Security)
Worm in computer is a computer worm is a type of malicious software program whose primary function is to infect other computers while remaining active on infected systems.
A computer worm is self-replicating malware that duplicates itself to spread to uninfected computers. Worms often use parts of an operating system that are automatic and invisible to the user. It is common for worms to be noticed only when their uncontrolled replication consumes system resources, slowing or halting other tasks.
Trojan horse or Trojan is a type of malware that is often disguised as legitimate software. Trojans can be employed by cyber-thieves and hackers trying to gain access to users’ systems. Users are typically tricked by some form of social engineering into loading and executing Trojans on their systems. Once activated, Trojans can enable cyber-criminals to spy on you, steal your sensitive data, and gain backdoor access to your system. These actions can include:
Disrupting the performance of computers or computer networks
Unlike computer viruses and worms, Trojans are not able to self-replicate.
1.2.2 Unauthorized Access and Use Unauthorized access and use is when someone gains access to a website, program, server, service, or other system using someone else’s account or other methods. For example, if someone kept guessing a password or username for an account that was not theirs until they gained access it is considered unauthorized access.
Unauthorized access could also occur if a user attempts to access an area of a system they should not be accessing. When attempting to access that area, they would be denied access and possibly see an unauthorized access message.
Some system administrators set up alerts to let them know when there is an unauthorized access attempt, so that they may investigate the reason. These alerts can help stop hackers from gaining access to a secure or confidential system. Many secure systems may also lock an account that has had too many failed login attempts.
1.2.3 Hardware Theft Hardware theft is the act of stealing computer equipment. Hardware vandalism is the act of defacing or destroying computer equipment. Hardware vandalism takes many forms, from someone cutting a computer cable to individuals breaking into a business or school computer lab and aimlessly smashing computers.
1.2.4 Software Theft Software theft means the unauthorized or illegal copying, sharing or usage of copyright-protected software programs. Software theft may be carried out by individuals, groups or, in some cases, organizations who then distribute the unauthorized software copies to users.
Software theft is committed when someone performs any of the following:
Steals software media
Deliberately erases programs
Illegally copies or distributes a program
Registers or activates a software program illegally
1.2.5 Information Theft Information theft is some criminals use the Internet or other computer networks to break into a particular computer system in order to access forbidden information or to cause some damage. Such users also are called hackers. Many companies and organizations that have networked computers use various security measures, such as computers serving as firewalls, to protect their computers from illegitimate access. But many hackers are familiar with these measures and know how to get around them.
1.3 Types of Security Measure1.3.1 Data Backup A data backup is the result of copying or archiving files and folders for the purpose of being able to restore them in case of data loss.
Data loss can be caused by many things ranging from computer viruses to hardware failures to file corruption to fire, flood, or theft (etc). If you are responsible for business data, a loss may involve critical financial, customer, and company data. If the data is on a personal computer, you could lose financial data and other key files, pictures, music, etc that would be hard to replace.
1.3.2 Cryptography Cryptography is the science of protecting information by transforming it into a secure format. This process, called encryption has been used for centuries to prevent handwritten messages from being read by unintended recipients. Today, cryptography is used to protect digital data. It is a division of computer science that focuses on transforming data into formats that cannot be recognized by unauthorized users.
1.3.3 Anti-virus Antivirus (that’s how we usually call the antivirus software or anti malware software), also abbreviated as AV, is basically the software that we use to detect, block and remove any malicious software. Well, that’s the basic definition of antivirus.
The name antivirus is still used as it was originally developed to detect and remove computer viruses, though with other kinds of malware too coming up, the software has been further developed, aiding in the blocking of all kinds of malicious objects, including ransomware, keyloggers, backdoors, rootkits, trojan horses, worms, malicious browser helper objects (BHOs), browser hijackers, malicious LSPs, dialers, fraudtools, adware, spyware etc and sometimes from malicious/infected URLs, spam/phishing emails, online banking attacks, social engineering techniques, APTs (advanced persistent threats), DDoS attacks etc.
1.3.4 Anti-spyware Anti-spyware programs help to block and prevent spyware and other malware infections on computers. Anti-spyware programs monitor incoming data from e-mail, websites, and downloads of files and stop spyware programs from getting a foothold in the computer operating system. They are also frequently updated by the developer, to keep it up-to-date and able to block the most recent spyware programs known to exist.
Some anti-spyware programs are designed only to block spyware, while others prevent both viruses and spyware. Lavasoft’s Ad-Aware SE, Malwarebytes, and Spybot – Search & Destroy are programs designed to target spyware only. McAfee, Symantec, Kaspersky, and Webroot all designed their software to block both viruses and spyware. For the sake of security and safety, it is best to purchase an anti-spyware program from a retail store or a well-known online retailer, to ensure you are getting a legitimate program. There are some supposed anti-spyware programs available to download on the Internet, but some are actual spyware programs in disguise and will ultimately infect your computer.
1.3.5 Firewall In computing, a firewall is software or firmware that enforces a set of rules about what data packets will be allowed to enter or leave a network. Firewalls are incorporated into a wide variety of networked devices to filter traffic and lower the risk that malicious packets traveling over the public internet can impact the security of a private network. Firewalls may also be purchased as stand-alone software applications.
The term firewall is a metaphor that compares a type of physical barrier that’s put in place to limit the damage a fire can cause, with a virtual barrier that’s put in place to limit damage from an external or internal cyberattack. When located at the perimeter of a network, firewalls provide low-level network protection, as well as important logging and auditing functions.
While the two main types of firewalls are host-based and network-based, there are many different types that can be found in different places and controlling different activities. A host-based firewall is installed on individual servers and monitors incoming and outgoing signals. A network-based firewall can be built into the cloud’s infrastructure, or it can be a virtual firewall service.
1.3.6 Physical Access Control Physical access control refers to the selective restriction of access to a space. Examples of physical access control include fob controlled gates, RFID doors and password protected IT systems.
It’s important for access control measures to be able to adapt with changing access requirements. Adaptable access control measures provide a smooth transition between restriction and access. However, ease of transition must be carefully balanced with security. The best physical access measures are both secure and adaptable.
1.3.7 Human Aspects:Awareness Human-computer interaction (HCI) is a multidisciplinary field in which psychology and other social sciences unite with computer science and related technical fields with the goal of making computing systems that are both useful and usable. It is a blend of applied and basic research, both drawing from psychological research and contributing new ideas to it. New technologies continuously challenge HCI researchers with new options, as do the demands of new audiences and uses. A variety of usability methods have been developed that draw upon psychological principles. HCI research has expanded beyond its roots in the cognitive processes of individual users to include social and organizational processes involved in computer usage in real environments as well as the use of computers in collaboration. HCI researchers need to be mindful of the longer-term changes brought about by the use of computing in a variety of venues.
2.0 REPORT 2.1 Three Computer Security RiskScenario 1
15113002803525Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1:Unauthorized Access and Use
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1:Unauthorized Access and Use
1511300131508500Unauthorized access most harmful threat as it leads to the loss of significant information and also to further attacks which could be worse than this. An attacker unknowingly gains access to your authorized section and steals sensitive resources. Suppose a host also playing the role of a web server has to provide web pages as per the request. But the host should not allow anybody to access the command shell without being sure about the identity of the user.
2152650207137000Malware is a category of malicious code that includes viruses, worms and Trojan horses. Destructive malware will use popular communication tools to spread, including worms sent through email and instant messages, Trojan horses dropped from Web sites and virus-infected files downloaded from peer-to-peer connections. Malware will also seek to exploit existing vulnerabilities on systems making their entry quiet and easy. How do you know? Malware works to remain unnoticed, either by actively hiding or by simply not making its presence on a system known to the user. You might notice your system is processing at a slower rate than what you are used to.
2152650371475Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2:Malware
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2:Malware
19875502757805Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3:Spyware
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3:Spyware
19875501290320Spyware can be downloaded from Web sites, email messages, instant messages and direct file-sharing connections. Additionally, a user may unknowingly receive spyware by accepting an End User License Agreement from a software program. How do you know? Spyware frequently attempts to remain unnoticed, either by actively hiding or simply not making its presence on a system known to the user.
2.2 Security Measure to Overcome The Security RisksScenario 1
Enforce strong authentication strategies.
15303501509395Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4:Keep Username and Password Secret
0Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4:Keep Username and Password Secret
1778000245745Keeping usernames and passwords secret from the unreliable sources.
Not providing unnecessary access to any user or even to any employee.
Only open email or IM attachments that come from trusted sources and are expected.
Have email attachments scanned by a reputable Internet security program prior to opening.
Delete all unwanted messages without opening.
Do not click on Web links sent by someone you do not know.
If a person on your Buddy list is sending strange messages, files or Web site links, terminate your IM session.
Scan all files with a reputable Internet security program before transferring them to your system.
18161001752600Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5:File Transfer
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5:File Transfer
1816100266700Only transfer files from well-known sources.
Use a reputable Internet security program to block all unsolicited outbound communication.
Keep security patches up to date.
Use a reputable Internet security program to proactively protect from spyware and other security risks.
Configure the firewall in the reputable Internet security program to block unsolicited requests for outbound communication.
14795501609725Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6:Suspicious error Dialogue
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6:Suspicious error Dialogue
1479550260350Do not accept or open suspicious error dialogs from within the browser.
Spyware may come as part of a “free deal” offer — do not accept free deals.
Always carefully read the End User License agreement at Install time and cancel if other “programs” are being installed as part of the desired program.
Keep software and security patches up to date.
3.0 CONCLUSION Internet connectivity, email and the web, now vital for small business, pose many risks to computer systems and the privacy of the company’s data. The onslaught of viruses, worms, and Trojan horses, compounded with the increasing problem of spyware, adware, and blended threats continue to attack an organization’s network through multiple methods.
Without effective network-defense and disaster-recovery practices a business is constantly at risk. Defense requires continually updated products such as Symantec AntiVirus or Symantec Client Security, and a well-defined outbreak-response plan to identify and deal with this ever-expanding problem. Symantec AntiVirus and Symantec Client Security provide an effective barrier against security risks and threats, facilitating their identification and removal, and protect sensitive and private company data. Without this protection, companies might find themselves faced with an administrative nightmare, including time consuming and costly full system reloads to recover lost data.
BIBLIOGRAPHY l 17417 Cashman, S. (2016). Discovering Computer. United States of America: Nelson Education.Ltd.
ClickSSL. (1 May, 2013). Network Security Threats And Their Solutions. Retrieved from ClickSSL: https://www.clickssl.net/blog/network-security-threats-and-their-solutions
Computer. (n.d.). Retrieved from Brittanica Kids-Students: https://kids.britannica.com/students/article/computer/273764/199064-toc
Computer Threats. (n.d.). Retrieved from Monster Worldwide.Inc: https://www.monster.com/career-advice/article/computer-threats-protect
Cryptography. (15 July, 2015). Retrieved from TechTerms: https://techterms.com/definition/cryptography
Definition and Risks of Malicious Code. (n.d.). Retrieved from Kaspersky Lab: https://www.kaspersky.com/resource-center/definitions/malicious-code
Definition of Antivirus; How to Remove Virus from a Computer. (27 February, 2018). Retrieved from Comodo Antivirus: https://antivirus.comodo.com/blog/comodo-news/antivirus-definition-remove-virus-from-computer/
Definition of Trojan Horse. (2000-2018). Retrieved from TargetTech:Security Search: https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/Trojan-horse
Hanks, P. (October, 2014). Collins. Retrieved from Collins Dictionay: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/security-measure
Hausman, K., Alston, N., & Chapple, M. (18 November, 2005). Protecting Your Network From Security Risks and Threats. Retrieved from InformIT: http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=419051&seqNum=13
Hope, C. (16 June, 2017). Anti-Spyware. Retrieved from Computer Hope: https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/a/antispy.htm
Hope, C. (26 April, 2017). Unauthorized Access. Retrieved from Computer Hope: https://www.computerhope.com/jargon/u/unauacce.htm
Janssen, D., & Janssen, C. (n.d.). Software Theft. Retrieved from Techopedia: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/22203/software-theft
Kaspersky Lab User Guide. (2015). Russia: Kaspersky Internet Security.
Olson, G. M., & Olson, J. S. (February, 2003). Human-Computer Interaction: Psychological Aspects of the Human Use of Computing. Retrieved from Annual Review: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145044
Rouse, M. (30 October, 2005). Computer Worm. Retrieved from Search Security:TargetTech: https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/worm
Rouse, M., Clark, C., & Cobb, M. (February, 2018). Firewall. Retrieved from Search Security-TargetTech: https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/firewall
Scheafer, C. (5 May, 2017). Understanding the Difference Between Physical Access Control and Logical Access Control. Retrieved from Mint Controls: http://www.mintcontrols.com/understanding-the-difference-between-physical-access-control-and-logical-access-control/
What is a Data Backup. (16 June, 2017). Retrieved from Winzip-A Corel Company: http://kb.winzip.com/kb/entry/12/
What is a Trojan Virus? (2018). Retrieved from Kaspersky Lab: https://www.kaspersky.com/resource-center/threats/trojans
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION MALAYSIA MATRICULATION PROGRAMME
Student’s Name:Mashitah binti Mahmood
Course:ScienceCode:SC015 Matric No.:MS1816116620
Assignment Title: Student’s Declaration
I declare that this task is my own work except for the citations and summaries of which I acknowledged the source.
Signature: ___________________ Date: _____________
Nota: Students are expected to attach this form with their assignment prior submitting to their respective lecturers.