Table of Contents
1.1 Explain the effects of socioeconomic influences on health………………………. 2
1.2 Assess the relevance of government sources in reporting on inequalities in health………………………………………………………………………………………… 3
1.3 Discuss reasons for barriers to accessing Healthcare 4
2.1 Analyse the links between government strategies and models of health promotion 4
2.2 Explain the role of professionals in meeting government targets for health promotion 5
2.3 Discuss the role of routines in promoting healthy living 6
3.1 Explain how health beliefs relate to theories of health behaviour 6
3.2 Possible effects of potential conflicts with local industry on health promotion 7
3.3 Importance of providing relevant health related information to the public 8
4.1 Health promotion campaign 8
4.2 How the health promotion campaign supports health promotion strategies 10
The assignment will focus on the health care promotions in the health care communities in the country. The assignment will include three main parts which will elaborate on different aspects of health care promotions. In the first part, the socio economic influences on child obesity in London Borough of Newham will be identified. And then the relevance of government sources in reporting health inequalities and barriers for accessing health care services will be identified. The health models contribution in health promotion will be identified and then the factors that influence on the health care promotions will be identified. Finally a practical health care campaign will be created.
1.1 Explain the effects of socioeconomic influences on health
Socio – economic factors have been described as the socio interactions and economic related factors of a person or a community. The assignment has selected to identify socio – economic factors in the London Borough of Newham that impact on the child obesity. The following factors can be identified as socio – economic factors,
1. Lack of physical exercises
2. Consumption of high caloric food
3. Lack of knowledge on obesity and causes
4. Sleeping patterns
5. High consumption of sugar
6. Food prices
9. Housing and homelessness
10. Life style choices
11. Economic recession
12. Access to health care facilities
According to JSNA (2015), due to lack of physical exercises has caused the children in Newham to develop symptoms of obesity. Due to this, fat storage in the human body has increased and caused the children in Newham to increase their body fact percentage. This is associated with long studying hours and less sleeping they get to receive as children. Due to heavy work in schools and colleges, the time for a proper sleep has been reduced. Lack of sleep and stress are factors that can cause increased fat storage and then leads to obesity.
Another factor is the food patterns among children. Lots of children like to eat fast food, high caloric food and food with higher amount of salts and sugar. This has triggered the body fat storage among children and has increased the obesity level. Since the fast food and high caloric foods are cheaper than healthy food, children have eaten more unhealthy food that causes higher fat storage in body.
1.2 Assess the relevance of government sources in reporting on inequalities in health
There are several government sources which have designed to analyse and report inequalities in health care community in the country. The Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) is one the surveys conducted by the NHS UK. The HALS is conducted with the support from local and national health services and from the information gathered with the support of general practitioners. The HALS collects data such as physical health, social care systems, life style behaviours, mental health, physical measures and well-being of the service users in the country. The inequalities in health care services are identified in that (NHS, 2015).
The Acheson report which was headed by Donald Acheson was published in year 1998 with a United Kingdom inquiry. The Acheson report has its full title as Independent Inquiry in to Inequalities in Health Report (Government UK¸ 2015). Like the black report that was published earlier, the Acheson report was intended to identify and analyse the existing health disparities and how those disparities relate to the social class of the community. After the findings of the report were analysed, there were 39 policy suggestions in several areas such as taxation, agriculture and health services to reduce the health care disparities. The findings and suggestions given from the Acheson report were helpful for creating the Green paper and the White paper in year 1998 and 1999 respectively.
1.3 Discuss reasons for barriers to accessing Healthcare
Several factors can be identified as the factors that act as barriers for accessing health care services and receiving health care services for the community members in London Borough of Newham. The barriers include factor such as disabilities, time, income, employment, attitudes, language problems, culture, religion and their mental capacity.
When people have disabilities, they will not be able to go to the health care centres and if they are not able to get special transportation facilities, it will be difficult for the disabled people to receive health care services from a service centre.
People who are involved in working all day long and students who have so much work will be busy during all the time of the day and therefore having less time will be a barrier for them.
Due to language problems, communication with the service providers will not be very effective and therefore language barriers can be a barrier for some of the people.
The private health care services include obesity prevention programmes or programmes for reducing obesity levels which can be costly for a person with an average income. Therefore people or children from families with a lower level of income have not been able to receive services from those service organisations.
Another barrier that can be identified is the attitude and lack of knowledge of the children and their parents about obesity and its consequences (Butler and Gwenda, 2004). People with a lower level of education are not aware of the negative outcomes that can be caused by obesity. And some people do not have a positive attitude towards the health care services as they are unaware of the theories behind health services. Therefore people avoid getting services from health care organisation even when the services are provided free of charge.
Transportation and other infrastructure related problems also act as barriers for accessing health care services for children and their families (Equality rights, 2015). Without special transportation services for disabled people and when proper infrastructures such as lifts are not available for service users, it will act as a barrier for accessing the health care services.
2.1 Analyse the links between government strategies and models of health promotion
As the smoking cessation officer there are many strategies and actions that have been taken by the government to reduce the smoking and prevent people from being addicted to smoking. The strategies that have been taken are related to different health models.
One of the strategies that can be identified is the legislation which as banned smoking in public places. This regulation has been created with the purpose of reducing bad influence on others for smoking (Naidoo and Wills, 2009). This strategy can be related to Caplan & Holland (1990) health model which mentioned that there four perspectives of health approaches as the traditional, humanist, radical humanistic, and radical structural perspectives. The strategies that are related to legislation can be identified as a radical structural perspective which is part of the Caplan & Holland (1990) model.
The legislation to ban public smoking can also be related to the Beattie (1991) health model. According to the model, there are four approaches that can be taken such as health persuasion by professional, legislative actions, personal counselling and community development (NHS¸ 2015). The strategy can be identified as a part of the legislative actions according to the Beattie (1991).
The smokefree health campaign can be described as an approach that is focused on providing health care related information for the community members so that they are able to identify the risks that they are exposed by being a smoker. This strategy can be related to Tannahill and Downie (1996) model of health which describes that there are three spheres of health promotion as health education, health protection and health prevention.
2.2 Explain the role of professionals in meeting government targets for health promotion
The professionals in the health care setting includes health advisers, practice nurses, general practitioners, dentists, midwives, nutritionists, dieticians and other specialist doctors in certain areas. When the government has taken approaches for preventing smoking, targets have been set and the professionals in the health care sector are responsible for working towards achieving those objectives.
The smoking cessation officer in the area is responsible for practising the national smoke prevention programmes in the locality. The officer will be organising the health care campaigns, makes sure that the regulations are followed and people are approached from the health care programmes.
The health advisers and the doctors act as the resource persons for the smoking cessation health care campaigns that are organised and arranged in the community (Lishman¸ 2007). The health care advisers have the knowledge and ability to conduct the health education programmes related to smoking cessation in the area according to the Tannahill and Downie (1996) model of health. Therefore their role will also be important for achieving the objectives.
The health care surveys and professional who are involved in the research programmes also have their responsibilities for conducting the health care surveys, analysing the records of smokers and smoking rates among different communities and form the epidemiology. These contribute to analyse the smoker rates and compare them in order to identify if the objectives have been achieved or not.
The officers in the National Health Service also have their responsibilities to design the health programmes which are related to smoking prevention and allocate funds for the programmes (Payne¸ 2011). Their contribution is also important for the programmes to be successful.
2.3 Discuss the role of routines in promoting healthy living
Promoting healthy living in with regards to smoking cessation can be supported by healthy lifestyles and daily routine activities. For example, the ways of food consumption, sleeping patterns, working hours, methods of spending leisure time and other substance use can be some of the routine activities that can impact on the healthy living of people.
When people eat lots of high caloric foods and food items that are high in sugars and salts as a daily habit, the body fat storage increases and people tend to develop symptoms of obesity. These also because the body store more fat beneath the skin and around the internal organs which can lead to cause heart problems and blood circulation blocks (Fitness blender¸ 2015). Therefore it is important to limit consumption of junk food in order for the body to be healthy.
Engaging in physical activities such as exercises can be identified as another routine activity that can promote healthy living (Reamer, 2006). Exercises help to regulate the blood circulation, decrease the stored fat in body and also to refresh the body which can reduce the risk of heart problems, diabetes, blood pressure etc. it also increase fitness of the body.
When these routine health activities are related to smoking cessation as mentioned in the case study, smoking cessation can be supported by the routine health activities of people that can be promoted in the community. When the people are given motivation to stay from negatively impacting habits such as smoking, the number of smokers will be reduced in the community. With routines such as regular exercises, healthy eating and using other non-harmful methods to spend the leisure time will help the smokers to not get involved in smoking.
3.1 Explain how health beliefs relate to theories of health behaviour
There are several health behaviour theories that can be used to describe the health beliefs among people in a community. The health promotion topic of smoking cessation has been selected as the topic for this part of the assignment. Health beliefs can be found among people and communities. According to the health model of behaviour, it has been identified that health beliefs among people are based on central influences that exist for them in relation to health (Barker, 2009). The targets and objectives that a person has will be forming the central influences on that person. For an examples, as people are aware that smoking and the bad impact of smoking, their objectives of being healthy have not become inline to smoking. Therefore smoking has been considered as a practice that impacts negatively on overall health.
The theory of reasoned actions can be identified as another health model. According to the theory, people will follow some of the practices with or without their consent and actual intention for that. For example a person may cease smoking due to understanding the negative impacts (Pamela and David, 2009). The beliefs of health to avoid smoking have been formed due to the reasons such as negative health impacts of smoking which has been proven.
According to the stage of change model, it is described that health practices of people cannot be changed in an instance but with a series of actions. And it is described when a person goes through the changes of certain behaviour; beliefs related to that practice may change along with the stages of change. For example when a person who beliefs smoking is not bad, will go through the stages of change to stop the bad habit and then change his belief towards smoking when he understands the medical base behind it (Butler and Gwenda, 2004).
3.2 Possible effects of potential conflicts with local industry on health promotion
When the possible conflicts that could arise within the local industries and health promotion in the London Borough of Newham and also the other parts of the country are considered, several conflicts can be identified.
The legislative actions such as banning smoking in public, banning the advertisements and promotions of tobacco related products and also preventing young people from buying tobacco related products are very effective methods of limiting the smoking among community. Due to these, thousands of new smokers can be avoided and people who are already smoking can be saved from their bad habit. However, it becomes a conflict with the industries because these promotions can cause the revenue generation of the large tobacco production companies to be reduced. According to the statistics, tobacco companies pay a large amount of money as tax for the government. 8 billion pounds are paid by the cigarette and tobacco companies. The government has spent that money on health care services in the country and other development activities. Therefore losing that money will become a problem for the government to provide free health care services and maintain the infrastructure development of the country (Government UK¸ 2015). Therefore a major conflict within the industries, governments and health care systems are arisen which are interconnected together. Changing of the systems may lead to consequences that will be negatively impacting on health and safety of the communities.
3.3 Importance of providing relevant health related information to the public
Providing health care information for the public can bring many benefits that are related to reducing the risk of disease levels in the community and promote healthy living. One of the benefits is that the information distributed among the people can increase the personal responsibility of people in preventing diseases (Jon¸ 2003). For examples, when ceasing of smoking related information such as how young children are impacted from passive smoke and how non – smokers are impacted from smoking in indirect ways are educated to smokers, they will be aware of the social responsibilities they hold as part of the community and how they should act in a way that their responsibility for a healthier society is covered by them.
Another benefit is that it will help to control communicable diseases. There are many communicable diseases that are being found from time to time such as Ebola, influenza etc. (Payne, 2011). When people are given information on how these different communicable diseases are spread and how to be safe from them, people will be able to take actions for safeguarding themselves and their family members from the communicable diseases. Therefore the people in communities can be made aware about the communicable disease that they are more likely to be attacked from and the instructions on how to avoid those diseases. this will help to reduce a large number of communicable diseases and it will help to save lots of expenses for the health care services in the country.
4.1 Health promotion campaign
Assessment of needs –
The locality that has been selected for the health care campaign is London Borough of Newham and the promotion campaign will have the objective of reducing the number of smokers in the area and also to mainly avoid young people being addicted to smoking and other tobacco related substance use.
Aims and Objectives
– Reduce the number of smokers in the area with an educational approach
– Avoid young people from being addicted to smoking
– Reduce/ prevent pregnant mother’s from smoking
– Reduce smoking related negative health problems in the community (such as heart diseases, high blood pressure, bronchitis etc.)
– Increase health education with regards to smoking and negative benefits of smoking
– 3 months
Strategies to be taken in to actions
– Health education programmes conducted in school, describing and educating the negative impacts of smoking targeting young people in the area
– Resource persons will be used to educate and conduct health related educational campaigns in the area
– Pregnant mothers will be provided educational guidance in the maternity clinics on the health impacts of smoking
– Health care campaign posters and informative leaflets will be distributed among the people to increase the participation for the health care programmes
– Health clinics will be set up with introduction of the health care programmes such as “smokefree” programme for reducing smoking rate among the community
– Change4Life programme will be introduced in the community for the people who are smoking and if they like to stop smoking.
Resources to be used
– Government regulations and legislative practices
– Programmes like Chage4Life, SmokeFree
– Knowledge from resource from health care providers, nurses, doctors, health care advisers, social care workers
– Places such as schools, colleges, medical clinics, GP offices, counsellors
Evaluation of the campaign
– Comparing the smoking rate in the area before and after the campaign will give a quantitative measurement on how successful the educational campaign was
– The participation for the health care campaign can be counted to get an idea of the success of the plan
– Number of people who have been able to quit smoking with the help of the programmes and educational campaign
4.2 How the health promotion campaign supports health promotion strategies
The health promotion strategies such as getting the involvement of the health care professionals for supporting the campaign, using a project time, having specific strategies and focusing on the health care practices of the community when the campaign programmes are designed.
As mentioned in the plan, the health care campaign has been designed by getting the assistance and the help of the health care professionals as the resource persons of the campaign. Therefore the design of the campaign can be identified have the strategic approaches.
And the campaign has provided the objectives of the programme and the time frame that the programme will be operated for. Therefore the health care campaign will be operated according to the time frame and also the strategic tactics that will be used will be designed according to the needs of the objectives. Therefore it can be concluded that the health campaign has the strategic approach.
The socio economic effects of obesity among children in London Borough of Newham have been identified and the government sources of reporting health care inequalities were described. The barriers of accessing health care services were analysed. The links between government strategies and the health care models were identified. The professional roles in achieving the health care goals were identified. The relation of health beliefs to theories of health was identified. A health care campaign was designed to reduce the smoking in London Borough of Newham. And how the health care campaign follows the health care strategies was also identified.