Smart of their properties. Then we will figure it

Smart materials in manufacturingMaterials technology has had very important effect on the human evolution that historians have characterized periods in that evolution by such terms as the stone age the bronze age and the Iron age synthetic materials age and smart materials age.Smart materials are those materials that respond to external factors like changing condition or surrounding or other directed influences like passing electric current among them or emitting sunlight to them. Nowadays using smart materials is developing day by day. They are used in all industries fields such as automotive, Surgery, electronic, Manufacturing. There is several kinds of smart materials. For example Piezoelectric,shape memory alloys, thermochromic, photochromic and etc. In this essay we will familiar to smart materials and some of their properties. Then we will figure it out how can use smart materials for design better and more reliable goods. (smart materials and structure,1992) Piezoelectrics are materials which applying a mechanical stress to them can produce electrical current. for instance in a cheap lighter when you press the button a piezoelectric material charge and generate sufficient current for create a sparkle.Thermal shape memory alloys are materials which offer the special ability to remember their original shape.after a permanent plastic deformation followed by heating up above a critical temperature the material transforms back to its initial state.a reversible austenite-martensite phase transformation is required for the shape memory effect.for example there is one shape memory alloy (SMA) called nitinol (a metal alloy of nickel and titanium) which has been used in extremely resilient glasses frames. Thermochromic: an input of thermal energy (heat) to the material alters its molecular structure.the new molecular structure has a different spectral reflectivity then does the original structure; as a result, the materials colour (is reflected radiation in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) changes. They have been used in bath plugs that change color in red when the water getting too hot. Photochromic  are similar to thermochromic though they change color in response to changes in light conditions.the best example is photochromic glasses which get darker when exposed to sunlight.SMA are the most famous and applicable smart materials in the industry.besides their unique property as a smart material they have other fantastic physical properties that makes them an excellent  alternative for regular metals and alloys. They have high yield strength and coefficient of thermal expansion.their electrical and thermal conductivity are low therefore they are good conductors.for example nitinol’s yield strength and electrical and thermal conductivity are:690 Mpa, 82×10?6 ?·cm, 0.18 w/cm.k respectively (engineering aspects of shape memory alloys, 1990). According to these marvelous properties SMAs can use instead of aluminum or steel in industries. For example: comercial and the most useful alloys of steel only has yield strength around 330 Mpa. It is half of the nitinol’s.nitinol and zinc, copper, gold and iron alloys are very popular in industries. The first steps in discovering of shape-memory effect has been taken in 1930 decade. Professor Otsuka from university of Tsukuba and professor Wayman from university of illinois discovered the elastic behaviour of gold-cadmium alloy in 1932. After that about six years later scientists observed  the formation and fadeaway of martensite phase by performing heat to copper-zinc alloy. Nitinol first time discovered in US naval lab between 1962-1963. The main properties of this alloy discovered accidentally. Today shape memory polymers have been developed and are commercially available.phase transformation plays the key role in the SMA’s unique behaviour. The martensitic transformation converts the material between two particular phases, namely austenite and martensite. Austenite is the high temperature or ‘parent’ phase and exhibits a cubic crystalline structure whereas martensite is the low temperature phase that exhibits a tetragonal or monoclinic crystalline structure. The martensitic transformation is a shear-dominant, diffusionless transformation that occurs via the nucleation and growth of the martensitic phase from the parent austenitic phase. The transformation from austenite to martensite may lead to twinned martensite in the absence of internal and external stresses or detwinned martensite if such stresses exist at a sufficient level. Because the transformation from austenite to twinned martensite results in negligible macroscopic shape change, twinned martensite is often referred to as self-accommodated martensite. The reorientation of twinned martensite into detwinned martensite can take place under the application of sufficient stress. One of SMA applications in the field of automotive that could be a successful repetition part with millions of sales is the unlocking of petrol cap. In conventional petrol caps the release mechanism is realized by an electromechanical motor, with a weight of 10 grams. With an element quantity of 10 it is a comparatively complex system. Hence the probability of failure is accordingly high and it captures plenty space. The new concept instead uses a shape memory wire that works against a spring. The releasing device achieves 10 mm stroke and applies a force of about 10 Newtons. It realize the same function like conventionally used electromotor while taking up less space using only 3 elements (SMA wire, spring, crimp). Moreover this smart construction with only 30 grams enables a significant weight reduction of 71 % and works completely noiseless.Not only the field of automotive includes a high potential for weight reduction but also in aerospace lightweight is an important point and several applications are predestined for use of shape memory actuators. The unlocking of oxygen masks in case of pressure drop for example is currently a solenoid device with a mass of 82 grams and a cross-section of about 21 cm3. There are 30 elements required to release the flap. Using SMA the number of elements is reduced to 20. Thus a weight reduction of 34% could be achieved. In aerospace engineering morphing technologies are able to increase a systems performance by manipulating characteristic to better match the system state to the operating conditions. Current morphing has certain disadvantages: Even small structural changes are very difficult. They require heavy motors, hydraulics and structural reinforcements. Hence current system are very complex and expansive. Smart materials lead to new morphing concepts since they offer a number of advantages: they enable to design fully integrated, distributed and simple actuation systems without adding any weight. Especially SMAs are a very light, robust, simple and easy to integrate technology for realizing morphing structures.we will see that many smart materials may also actually act as sensors or this kind of role, a smart material answer to a change in its surrounding by generating a perceivable response. Hence a thermochromic material could be used directly as a device for sensing a change in the temperature of an environment via its colour response capabilities. Other materials, such as piezoelectric crystals, could also be used as actuators by passing an electric current through the material to create a force.many common sensors and actuators are based on the use of smart materials. In the use of type two materials as a sensor or actuator, there are also different kinds of electronic systems that are integral to the system to amplify, modify, transmit, or interpret generated signals. Logic capabilities provided via micro processors or other computer-based systems are similarly common. Summary and outlookThe previously described SMA applications clearly shows that the general design rules are basically investigated and well established. however , they also show that designing smart material based components require complex technical knowledge beyond the borders of the different engineering disciplines. The petrol cap unlocking actuator for example is comparatively easy to design and only requires knowledge in materials science and mechanical engineering. More complex, controlled systems like hand prosthesis rather not just required knowledge materials science and electrical engineering; control engineering is also an essential part of their design. The most complex self-sufficient systems are even more difficult to develop. Beyond that the described systems are purely technical components developed by technical designers. Consumer products where design form or usability are the actual benefits are instead developed by product designers. Product designers rather work more eye-minded and intuitively. They usually do not have the complex technical background of smart materials and hence do not use these during their design process. To overcome this problem “smart tools for smart design” will be developed soon to enable product designer to use smart materials for design without the necessity of discovering the whole complexity of smart materials.


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