Slavery ended in 1865, or so we assume! According to the International Labor Organization (ILO) Today There are more than 40.3 million people are victims of modern slavery, moreover, 151.6 million children aged 5 to 17 in child labor and we are all complicit. In other words, today there are more slaves than any time in history. Human trafficking, often compared to modern-day slavery, where human trafficking involves the use of force, coercion, or fraud to obtain some type of labor or a commercial sex act (Homeland Security). In fact, the most common forms of human trafficking are forced labor – which includes sex trafficking – and forced marriage, according to the (ILO). This issue is an incredibly complex based on dozens of contributing factors, whereas human trafficking is an industry that profits from the exploitation of the world’s most vulnerable. To grasp how trafficking initiated, and why it is non-stopped, we need to explore all the factors that give it fuel. In this paper, I will focus on the factors of demand for the sale and exploit of human. Whereas human trafficking industry performs on the same principles as the rest of the business industry: supply and demand. Which it means that consumers play a large part in increasing the human trafficking industry, to bend the curve we need to identify the demand factor which it contains the demand of cheap labor, inexpensive products/services, and the demand for sexual services.
The International Labor Organization estimates that forced labor and human trafficking is a $150 billion industry worldwide.
Sex trafficking is one of the biggest industries where its profit per year around $99 billion according to (ILO). Where traffickers dominate human mostly women and children to be sold and enslaved as provider of sexual services. In detail studies show that there are more than ninety percent of prostituted women in various surveys want to leave prostitution, but lack viable options (Gerdes 2006). Beside, an estimated 30,000 victims of sex trafficking die each year from abuse, disease, torture, and neglect. Eighty percent of those sold into sexual slavery are under 24, and some are as young as six years old (“Millions Suffer in Sex Slavery.” NewsMax. April 24, 2001. Accessed: December 26, 2010.). On the contrary, Jo Doezema (2000) concluded his research that the picture of men buying women to abuse them for their sexual pleasure is exaggerated. However, the facts does not support Jo Doezema’s theory and emphasizes that sex provider in this field are at high risk. While research on the demand of sex is limited, there are Melissa Farley et al research (2015) where they studied the characteristics of sex buyers (SB) a sample of 202 men, as a result they found that SB share certain kay characteristics with men of risk of committing sexual aggression as documented by research based on the leading scientific model of the characteristics of non-criminal sexually aggressive men, the confluence model of sexual aggression. So SB were more likely than men who did not buy sex (NSB) to report sexual aggression and likelihood to rape. Moreover, the study shows that SB are not deterred from buying sex when they know the prostitute has been trafficked or exploited. Based on these results and others governments started to address the issue of the sex demand as a part of the problem, where they set programs to educate the public such as john schools and public shaming as strategy to reduce the demand of sexual services.
(numbers that support this strategy)
According to UNICEF victims of labor trafficking discovered in hospitality industry, restaurants, and food services, nail salon, spas, domestic work, construction industry, manufacturing, traveling sales crews where 67% of them undocumented (2013). This industry has no respecter of gender or age, 24.9 million victims in forced labour, moreover, 1 in 4 victims of modern slavery are children according to (ILO). Where forced labor is systematically exploits men, women, and children by forcing them to work unbearably long hours, under inhumane conditions, for little to no pay (Gould, 2016)