Since are examples of deadly diseases to


the beginning of time there have been thousands of diseases which have affected
the world and taken millions of lives. Diseases like Malaria, Ebola and Cholera
are examples of deadly diseases to hit the world, these diseases mean a very
high chance of death if contracted due to their high mortality rates and the
nature of the disease. Although they are very deadly disease and could mean
certain death, scientists work hard to find everything they can about it from
how they are transmitted to how the environment help develop the disease. The
reason why I chose these three diseases specifically is because they all came
from the same continent and became deadly disease.


Ebola is
one of the deadliest diseases ever and it is said to mean certain death once
you catch the disease. Ebola first emerged from Sudan and Zaire in 1976. Ebola
virus disease is caused by Ebola virus which is a member of the filovirus
family, this virus occurs in humans and other primates. The first outbreak of
Ebola was in Sudan this outbreak infected over 284 people and it had a
mortality rate of 53%. However, a few months later, there was a second outbreak
of the Ebola virus which emerged from Yambuku, Zaire, and the Ebola virus is
known as Ebola-Zaire, this virus has the highest mortality rate of 88% and
infected approximately 318 people. Although many scientists from all around the
world made efforts to find the natural reservoir it was not possible. The third
outbreak of Ebola in 1989 named Ebola Reston happened when infected monkeys
were imported into Reston, Virginia from Mindanao in the Philippines, the few
people who were infected with the disease were fortunate enough to not develop
the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. According to the World Health Organisation the
biggest Ebola virus outbreak to date is the 2014-2016 outbreak in west Africa,
there were more deaths than all other cases of Ebola outbreak combined (WHO, 2017)

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is another disease which had a big breakout similar to Ebola. Symptoms of
malaria were noted around 4000 years ago between, these symptoms were described
in ancient Chinese medical writings (2700 BC), Malaria was recognised in Greece
in the 4th century and caused the decline of the population of
cities. The compendium of susruta which is a sanskrit medical treatise read
that the symptoms of malarial fever are attributed to the bites of specific
insects. In 1880 the malaria parasite was discovered by a french army surgeon
named Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran where he found parasites in the blood of a
patient who suffered from Malaria, the surgeon later received a Nobel prize for
this. Malaria like Ebola is a life-threatening disease and is transmitted
through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. (Stanford, 1999).


like Malaria is a disease which has affected 1000s of people. According to the
World Health Organisations Cholera affects 3-5 million people every year and
100,000-120,000, cholera is actually an ancient disease according to World
Health Organisation (WHO). The first recording of cholera was taken in 1563 in
an Indian medical report, however in the modern times the disease began in 1817
where it spread from its ancient homeland of Ganges Delta in India to the rest
of the world since then millions have died at the hands of cholera.Ebola
virus disease is caused by Ebola virus which is a member of the filovirus
family, this virus occurs in humans and other primates. There are five species
of Ebola virus Zaïre ebolavirus (EBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Tai Forest
(TAFV) (formerly known as Ebola Ivory Coast), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) and
Reston ebolavirus (RESTV). Out of all the five different species of Ebola
Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) is the only species which does not affect humans but
affects primates. According to Stanford Education researchers believe that the
virus is animal borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir, and that
they most likely transmit the disease to humans and primates by biting them.  However,
like Ebola, Malaria is also animal borne as it is transmitted through the bite
of a specific type of mosquito called the Anopheles genus-and only females of these
species can transmit malaria. Malaria is caused by a one-celled parasite called
a plasmodium, female Anopheles mosquitoes pick up the parasite from infected
people when they bite to obtain the blood need for their eggs. Compared to
Ebola Malaria is said to be an ancient disease whereas Ebola only started in
the 1800.  According to Prafulla
Chandra Tiwari, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Pharmacology, King George
Medical University the first historical reports of symptoms of malaria date
back to the ancient Egyptians (1550 B.C.) and the ancient Greeks (413 B.C.).
The early descriptions suggested that there is an association between fevers
and wet ground. The word “Malaria” derives from the Italian word for “bad air”,
malaria is also associated with marshes and swamps.  Mosquitoes
are contracted with Malaria by getting infected human when biting them,
therefore humans are the initial cause of Malaria. Mosquitoes bite an infected
human causing them to be infected with malaria, the successful development of
the malaria parasite in the mosquito is dependent on many factors. When malaria
undergoes development in the mosquito malaria goes from the gametocyte stage to
the sporozoite stage, higher temperatures causes the parasite to grow at an
accelerated rate and it also depends on whether the Anopheles survives long
enough to allow the parasite to complete sporogonic cycle in the mosquito host.
There are five different types of viruses that
cause Ebola and there are also five different types of protozoans
that cause malaria there are many different versions of the
disease, in this case malaria are parasites and there are four different kinds
malaria parasites which infect humans: P.ovale, Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae
and Falciparum. P. falciparum causes the most severe form of the disease this
results in a much risk of death. According to a study by Nkuo-Akenji T1, Ntonifor
NN, Ndukum
MB, Abongwa
EL, Nkwescheu
A, Anong
DN, Songmbe
M, Boyo MG, Ndamukong KN, Titanji VP from the National Center for Biotechnology
Information on Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence in
rural Bolifamba, South West Cameroon, the study compromised 1454 people aged
0-65 years. The study showed that malaria parasite prevalence was higher in the
rainy season (50.1%) than the dry season (44.2%) with a difference (P=0.001) in
mean parasite density between the two seasons. The study also showed that age
can be a factor with children younger than 15 years old having a significantly
higher malaria parasite prevalence (55.5%) than those who are older than 15
years (37.4%). Malaria parasite prevalence (P=0.001) and parasite density
(P=0.03) were higher in people who lived in wooden plank houses than those in
cement brick houses. Also people who lived in houses surrounded by bushes or
garbage heaps and swamps or stagnant water portrayed higher malaria parasite
prevalence. This information suggests that poor environmental sanitation and
housing conditions may a big risk factor for the malaria parasite burden in
Bolifamba. Mosquitos are the only things that can transmit Malaria, this is due
to the fact that malaria does not affect them, this is because Mosquitoes are
able to fight off the plasmodium, the single-celled microbe which causes Malaria,
however the parasite also develops in the mosquito via the sporogonic cycle.

is an infectious disease which causes the infection of your intestine that
causes a severe watery diarrhoea which can lead to dehydration and even death
if it is not untreated. The disease is caused by eating food or drinking water
which is contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio Cholera. Unlike malaria
and Ebola cholera is not animal born and is an infectious disease, however,
similar to malaria, cholera is found in wet places, the cholera bacterium is
usually found in water or food sources that have been contaminated by faeces
from a person who is already infected with cholera. Cholera is most likely to
be found in environments where there is not sufficient water treatment, poor
sanitation, and inadequate hygiene. Also, cholera bacterium may live in the
environment in salty rivers and coastal water, also eating raw shellfish may be
another cause of cholera after a few people in the U.S. contracted cholera
after eating it raw. (Centres for Disease Control and Infection, 2016)


which is the birth place of Ebola, Malaria and Cholera also happens to be one
of the most rural places in the world. The fact that Africa is one of the most
rural continents and is not as civilised as other continents could have
affected the development of the disease. Due to the fact that many countries
are divided and war stricken many of these countries or not civilised this
means that they have the inability to isolate the disease as well as other
countries do, this is because a lack resources, these rural areas may not have
a health service which is able to identify the disease due to a lack of
qualified specialist, this means they are not able educate the local people on
how to help prevent I from spreading, and they are not able to treat the
disease due to a lack of knowledge therefore this results in the development
and transmission of the diseases.


Economic factors


The changing demographic of the working
population has a huge impact on the development of the diseases in Africa.
According to the World Health organisation Africa has the lowest ratio of
physicians to civilians out of all of the continents in the world where Africa
has an average ratio of less than 0.500 to 0.999 physicians to 1000 people
whereas the rest of the world has 1-5 physicians per 1000 people, however,
North Africa unlike the rest of Africa has a ratio of 1-2.99 physicians per
1000 people, the reason for this could be due to economic factors. Many
countries in African do not have a strong economy this means they are not able
to hire as many physicians, this results in a shortage of professionals
therefore not everyone is able to visit a health care practice. So, when people
are ill and not feeling well they tend not to visit the health care services
due to money or distance as there is a shortage of practices and public
transport, furthermore a lack of teachers and education in rural areas mean
children and adults are not educated enough, meaning less professionals are
being produced for work in the health care sector. Moreover, a lack of
education of diseases and not knowing when to visit the doctors implies that
people do not visit the doctors when they are sick even though it might be a
deadly disease in its early stages and the physicians available can prevent it
from further developing. In rural countries lack of money due to a weak economy
means that there are less people employed to keep the environment clean, and
also a lack of money being invested into providing clean water and food, this
leads to the development of diseases e.g. cholera is spread due to the intake
of contaminated water and food. In conclusion you are able to say the economy
has a major role in preventing the development and transmission of diseases
through hiring professionals, educating the civilians and good sanitation.
(WHO, 2017)




Each of the 3 diseases I have chosen similar and different
in the way they are transmitted for instance Ebola is transmitted through
direct contact with someone with some who has Ebola, however Malaria is
transmitted through the bite of a mosquito and cholera is transmitted through
consuming food which is infected with cholera. Although Ebola can be
transmitted through the bite of an animal (bats) it is more likely to be
transmitted direct contact.


Ebola can be transmitted through direct contact with
blood or body fluids with someone who has Ebola, body fluids like saliva,
sweat, breast milk. Furthermore, needles and syringes that have been
contaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with Ebola or the body
of a person who has died from Ebola. Furthermore, another way of transmitting
the disease is through contact with Infected bats or primates such as apes and
monkey’s. Malaria is transmitted through the bite of a specific female mosquito
called Anopheles mosquitoes, when an infected mosquito bites a human it passes
the plasmodium parasite into the blood stream for it to take effect, however,
like Ebola it is able to be transmitted through sharing of needles and blood
transfusions however this is very rare. Unlike Ebola and Malaria, cholera is
transmitted by drinking water or eating food which is contaminated with the
cholera bacterium. In an epidemic faeces of an infected person is usually the
source of contamination of water and food generally in rural areas, the disease
spreads rapidly where there is no effort made in the treatment of sewage and
drinking water. Unlike Ebola Cholera does not spread through direct contact of
a person already infected with cholera.


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