Since are examples of deadly diseases to

 Sincethe beginning of time there have been thousands of diseases which have affectedthe world and taken millions of lives.

Diseases like Malaria, Ebola and Choleraare examples of deadly diseases to hit the world, these diseases mean a veryhigh chance of death if contracted due to their high mortality rates and thenature of the disease. Although they are very deadly disease and could meancertain death, scientists work hard to find everything they can about it fromhow they are transmitted to how the environment help develop the disease. Thereason why I chose these three diseases specifically is because they all camefrom the same continent and became deadly disease. Ebola isone of the deadliest diseases ever and it is said to mean certain death onceyou catch the disease. Ebola first emerged from Sudan and Zaire in 1976.

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Ebolavirus disease is caused by Ebola virus which is a member of the filovirusfamily, this virus occurs in humans and other primates. The first outbreak ofEbola was in Sudan this outbreak infected over 284 people and it had amortality rate of 53%. However, a few months later, there was a second outbreakof the Ebola virus which emerged from Yambuku, Zaire, and the Ebola virus isknown as Ebola-Zaire, this virus has the highest mortality rate of 88% andinfected approximately 318 people. Although many scientists from all around theworld made efforts to find the natural reservoir it was not possible. The thirdoutbreak of Ebola in 1989 named Ebola Reston happened when infected monkeyswere imported into Reston, Virginia from Mindanao in the Philippines, the fewpeople who were infected with the disease were fortunate enough to not developthe Ebola hemorrhagic fever. According to the World Health Organisation thebiggest Ebola virus outbreak to date is the 2014-2016 outbreak in west Africa,there were more deaths than all other cases of Ebola outbreak combined (WHO, 2017) Malariais another disease which had a big breakout similar to Ebola.

Symptoms ofmalaria were noted around 4000 years ago between, these symptoms were describedin ancient Chinese medical writings (2700 BC), Malaria was recognised in Greecein the 4th century and caused the decline of the population ofcities. The compendium of susruta which is a sanskrit medical treatise readthat the symptoms of malarial fever are attributed to the bites of specificinsects. In 1880 the malaria parasite was discovered by a french army surgeonnamed Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran where he found parasites in the blood of apatient who suffered from Malaria, the surgeon later received a Nobel prize forthis. Malaria like Ebola is a life-threatening disease and is transmittedthrough the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. (Stanford, 1999). Choleralike Malaria is a disease which has affected 1000s of people. According to theWorld Health Organisations Cholera affects 3-5 million people every year and100,000-120,000, cholera is actually an ancient disease according to WorldHealth Organisation (WHO).

The first recording of cholera was taken in 1563 inan Indian medical report, however in the modern times the disease began in 1817where it spread from its ancient homeland of Ganges Delta in India to the restof the world since then millions have died at the hands of cholera.Ebolavirus disease is caused by Ebola virus which is a member of the filovirusfamily, this virus occurs in humans and other primates. There are five speciesof Ebola virus Zaïre ebolavirus (EBOV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Tai Forest(TAFV) (formerly known as Ebola Ivory Coast), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV) andReston ebolavirus (RESTV). Out of all the five different species of EbolaReston ebolavirus (RESTV) is the only species which does not affect humans butaffects primates. According to Stanford Education researchers believe that thevirus is animal borne and that bats are the most likely reservoir, and thatthey most likely transmit the disease to humans and primates by biting them.

 However,like Ebola, Malaria is also animal borne as it is transmitted through the biteof a specific type of mosquito called the Anopheles genus-and only females of thesespecies can transmit malaria. Malaria is caused by a one-celled parasite calleda plasmodium, female Anopheles mosquitoes pick up the parasite from infectedpeople when they bite to obtain the blood need for their eggs. Compared toEbola Malaria is said to be an ancient disease whereas Ebola only started inthe 1800.  According to PrafullaChandra Tiwari, Senior Research Fellow, Dept of Pharmacology, King GeorgeMedical University the first historical reports of symptoms of malaria dateback to the ancient Egyptians (1550 B.

C.) and the ancient Greeks (413 B.C.).The early descriptions suggested that there is an association between feversand wet ground.

The word “Malaria” derives from the Italian word for “bad air”,malaria is also associated with marshes and swamps.  Mosquitoesare contracted with Malaria by getting infected human when biting them,therefore humans are the initial cause of Malaria. Mosquitoes bite an infectedhuman causing them to be infected with malaria, the successful development ofthe malaria parasite in the mosquito is dependent on many factors.

When malariaundergoes development in the mosquito malaria goes from the gametocyte stage tothe sporozoite stage, higher temperatures causes the parasite to grow at anaccelerated rate and it also depends on whether the Anopheles survives longenough to allow the parasite to complete sporogonic cycle in the mosquito host.There are five different types of viruses thatcause Ebola and there are also five different types of protozoansthat cause malaria there are many different versions of thedisease, in this case malaria are parasites and there are four different kindsmalaria parasites which infect humans: P.ovale, Plasmodium vivax, P. malariaeand Falciparum. P. falciparum causes the most severe form of the disease thisresults in a much risk of death. According to a study by Nkuo-Akenji T1, NtoniforNN, NdukumMB, AbongwaEL, NkwescheuA, AnongDN, SongmbeM, Boyo MG, Ndamukong KN, Titanji VP from the National Center for BiotechnologyInformation on Environmental factors affecting malaria parasite prevalence inrural Bolifamba, South West Cameroon, the study compromised 1454 people aged0-65 years. The study showed that malaria parasite prevalence was higher in therainy season (50.

1%) than the dry season (44.2%) with a difference (P=0.001) inmean parasite density between the two seasons.

The study also showed that agecan be a factor with children younger than 15 years old having a significantlyhigher malaria parasite prevalence (55.5%) than those who are older than 15years (37.4%). Malaria parasite prevalence (P=0.001) and parasite density(P=0.

03) were higher in people who lived in wooden plank houses than those incement brick houses. Also people who lived in houses surrounded by bushes orgarbage heaps and swamps or stagnant water portrayed higher malaria parasiteprevalence. This information suggests that poor environmental sanitation andhousing conditions may a big risk factor for the malaria parasite burden inBolifamba. Mosquitos are the only things that can transmit Malaria, this is dueto the fact that malaria does not affect them, this is because Mosquitoes areable to fight off the plasmodium, the single-celled microbe which causes Malaria,however the parasite also develops in the mosquito via the sporogonic cycle. Cholerais an infectious disease which causes the infection of your intestine thatcauses a severe watery diarrhoea which can lead to dehydration and even deathif it is not untreated. The disease is caused by eating food or drinking waterwhich is contaminated with a bacterium called Vibrio Cholera. Unlike malariaand Ebola cholera is not animal born and is an infectious disease, however,similar to malaria, cholera is found in wet places, the cholera bacterium isusually found in water or food sources that have been contaminated by faecesfrom a person who is already infected with cholera.

Cholera is most likely tobe found in environments where there is not sufficient water treatment, poorsanitation, and inadequate hygiene. Also, cholera bacterium may live in theenvironment in salty rivers and coastal water, also eating raw shellfish may beanother cause of cholera after a few people in the U.S. contracted choleraafter eating it raw.

(Centres for Disease Control and Infection, 2016) Africawhich is the birth place of Ebola, Malaria and Cholera also happens to be oneof the most rural places in the world. The fact that Africa is one of the mostrural continents and is not as civilised as other continents could haveaffected the development of the disease. Due to the fact that many countriesare divided and war stricken many of these countries or not civilised thismeans that they have the inability to isolate the disease as well as othercountries do, this is because a lack resources, these rural areas may not havea health service which is able to identify the disease due to a lack ofqualified specialist, this means they are not able educate the local people onhow to help prevent I from spreading, and they are not able to treat thedisease due to a lack of knowledge therefore this results in the developmentand transmission of the diseases. Economic factors The changing demographic of the workingpopulation has a huge impact on the development of the diseases in Africa.According to the World Health organisation Africa has the lowest ratio ofphysicians to civilians out of all of the continents in the world where Africahas an average ratio of less than 0.500 to 0.

999 physicians to 1000 peoplewhereas the rest of the world has 1-5 physicians per 1000 people, however,North Africa unlike the rest of Africa has a ratio of 1-2.99 physicians per1000 people, the reason for this could be due to economic factors. Manycountries in African do not have a strong economy this means they are not ableto hire as many physicians, this results in a shortage of professionalstherefore not everyone is able to visit a health care practice. So, when peopleare ill and not feeling well they tend not to visit the health care servicesdue to money or distance as there is a shortage of practices and publictransport, furthermore a lack of teachers and education in rural areas meanchildren and adults are not educated enough, meaning less professionals arebeing produced for work in the health care sector. Moreover, a lack ofeducation of diseases and not knowing when to visit the doctors implies thatpeople do not visit the doctors when they are sick even though it might be adeadly disease in its early stages and the physicians available can prevent itfrom further developing. In rural countries lack of money due to a weak economymeans that there are less people employed to keep the environment clean, andalso a lack of money being invested into providing clean water and food, thisleads to the development of diseases e.

g. cholera is spread due to the intakeof contaminated water and food. In conclusion you are able to say the economyhas a major role in preventing the development and transmission of diseasesthrough hiring professionals, educating the civilians and good sanitation.(WHO, 2017) Transmission Each of the 3 diseases I have chosen similar and differentin the way they are transmitted for instance Ebola is transmitted throughdirect contact with someone with some who has Ebola, however Malaria istransmitted through the bite of a mosquito and cholera is transmitted throughconsuming food which is infected with cholera.

Although Ebola can betransmitted through the bite of an animal (bats) it is more likely to betransmitted direct contact. Ebola can be transmitted through direct contact withblood or body fluids with someone who has Ebola, body fluids like saliva,sweat, breast milk. Furthermore, needles and syringes that have beencontaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with Ebola or the bodyof a person who has died from Ebola. Furthermore, another way of transmittingthe disease is through contact with Infected bats or primates such as apes andmonkey’s. Malaria is transmitted through the bite of a specific female mosquitocalled Anopheles mosquitoes, when an infected mosquito bites a human it passesthe plasmodium parasite into the blood stream for it to take effect, however,like Ebola it is able to be transmitted through sharing of needles and bloodtransfusions however this is very rare.

Unlike Ebola and Malaria, cholera istransmitted by drinking water or eating food which is contaminated with thecholera bacterium. In an epidemic faeces of an infected person is usually thesource of contamination of water and food generally in rural areas, the diseasespreads rapidly where there is no effort made in the treatment of sewage anddrinking water. Unlike Ebola Cholera does not spread through direct contact ofa person already infected with cholera.


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