Since and the Netherlands) the seroprevalence turned rapidly high

Since autumn 2011, when SBV was
first detected in northwestern Europe (Hoffmann et al., 2012), the virus has
spread over large parts of  Europe.
Infections with SBV have been detected in Germany,
the Netherlands, Belgium, the United Kingdom, France (seroprevalence up to
90%), Italy, Luxembourg, Spain, Italy,
Denmark, Estonia, Switzerland, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway, Sweden,
Finland, Poland, Austria, Switzerland and Turkey (Elbers et al. 2012; Azkur
et al. 2013; FLI 2013a; Larska et al. 2013; Meroc et al. 2013a,b; Sailleau et
al. 2013;  Chenais et al., 2014; Afonso
et al., 2014). In the core region (Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands) the
seroprevalence turned rapidly high upto 99.8% after the first reports. (Elbers
et al., 2012). (Méroc et al., 2013). Similar to the pattern of bluetongue virus
in 2008, the SBV spread
from mainland Europe to Great Britain has been tentatively linked to natural
movements of insects from infected areas (European Commission 2012).  Reports of possible recirculation of
Schmallenberg Virus after the initial epidemic in 2011-2013 have come from many
countries, including Germany (Wernike et
al., 2015a), Belgium (Delooz et al., 2016), England, Wales (APHA, 2017b) and
Ireland (Collins et al., 2016). SBV is not known to exist in the United
States. Orthobunyaviruses in the Simbu serogroup are known in Africa, Asia,
Australia, and the Middle East (European Commission 2012). If Schmallenberg
virus is present in countries outside Europe is presently unknown, however,
serological studies using ELISA and virus neutralization tests, have shown
antibody positive results from African countries. Since members of the Simbu
serogroup are known to circulate in many parts of Africa (Theodoridis et al.,
1979; Zeller & Bouloy, 2000; Mathew et al., 2015) and because of the issue
with cross reactivity, Blomström et al. (2013) and Mathew et al. (2015)
concluded that the seropositive ELISA results could be caused by other members
of the Simbu serogroup rather than by Schmallenberg virus. Similarly Sathuperi
virus, a member of Simbu serogroup was originally isolated in India from a pool
of Culex vishnui mosquitoes and in Nigeria from dairy cattle and pools of
Culicoides spp. (Dandawate,Rajagopalan, Pavri & Work, 1969; Causey,
Kemp,Causey & Lee,1972; Lee, 1979). A serological survey conducted on 4 to
9 year old Nigerian cattle showed that 17 out of 24 had neutralizing
antibodies. Another member of Simbu serogroup, Kaikalur virus was recovered
from a pool of Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes collected in Khrisna
district, India (Rodrigues, Singh, Dandawate, Soman & Bhatt, 1977). Due to
a very close two-way cross-reaction, Kaikalur and Aino viruses are considered
identical or varieties of a single virus.


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