Sher-Kaila OuterbridgeSeptember 16, 2018
Biochemistry Assignment: Meiosis and Mitosis
Cell division is an essential role in a cell’s life cycle; therefore without it, all living organisms fail to reproduce causing them to die off eventually. The two significant steps in cell division are cytokinesis and nuclear division (Quizlet, 2018). Mitosis and meiosis are similar in their processes that they result in existing cells separating into new ones. They also differ in their specific methods and products; the difference is in the class of cells each process creates. Mitosis and meiosis are processes where cells divide and replicate for growth and reproduction.
Mitosis is the process that splits patent cells into two daughter cells that are genetically alike. Meiosis is a reduction division that produces daughter cells which contain half the information from parent cells (Socratic, 2018). Mitosis occurs in the haploid number of chromosomes which is 23 while meiosis occurs in the diploid number of chromosomes which is 46. In meiosis, diploid divides the nucleus twice which produces four nuclei, and in mitosis, haploid divides the nucleus once which produces two nuclei. Meiosis produces gametes such as sex cells such as gametes that are sperm and egg cells; while mitosis produces somatic cells such as body cells.
Both mitosis and meiosis go through interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis; but mitosis goes through the process once while meiosis goes the process twice. Mitosis and meiosis include the nuclear membrane breakdown which is where genetic material separates into two groups that are followed by cell division and reformation of the nuclear membrane in each cell. Both processes tend to differ in two fundamentals; mitosis has one round of genetic separation and cellular division while meiosis has two of each.
Mitosis and meiosis tend to be present in all forms of life, but mitosis is used very widely for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes (Raven, 2018). Mitosis is used in the growth and development of organisms and replacement of existing cells; the meiosis cell is used in sexual reproduction. Mitosis manages to create more body cells so that the body can maintain the being process and not run out of cells.
Prophase and prophase II, the chromosomes start coming together to condense allowing the nucleus to get ready to divide. Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes gather and exchange genetic material. Metaphase and metaphase II, the chromosomes are prepared to be pulled apart while spindles are attached to each side of the centromeres to hold together sister chromatids.
Metaphase I, spindles are connected to different chromosomes from opposite sides of the cell. Anaphase and anaphase II, the physical splitting takes place where sister chromosomes are separated by moving in opposite directions (GetRevising, 2018). Anaphase, the divided sister chromatids are identical but anaphase I, the sister chromatids are not similar but go through the crossing in prophase I and stay together until moved in opposite directions after pulled apart.
Telophase, the last phase in cell division. Telophase and telophase II, what happened during prophase would be reversed ultimately. Telophase, it goes into cytokinesis resulting in two diploid cells and telophase II, has already been through on division goes into cytokinesis resulting in four haploid cells.
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