MISS KGOMOTSO MATLALA
Title of Assignment: Exploring Adult Learning
Module Code: ABT1513
Essay type questions
Due date: 15 March 2018
Unique number: 729832
Table of content
Page 2-3 question 1
• Name any 6 characteristics of adult learning
• Discuss each one fully
Page 3-4 question 2
Page 4-5 -6 question 3
• identify three types of barriers experienced by adult learners and give one example in each
• what is a barrier
• explain how would you help learners to overcome each type of barrier
• continue to question 3
Page 6-7 question 4
• draw and label the pyramid of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• using your own words, explain the various stages of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
• reference list
1.1 Six (6) characteristics of adult learning
? 1. Adults are autonomous and self-directed.
? 2. Adults have a foundation of life experiences and knowledge.
? 3. Adults are goal-oriented.
? 4. Adults are relevancy-oriented.
? 5. Adults are practical.
? 6. Adults need to be shown respect
1.2 Adults are autonomous and self-directed. They need to be free to direct themselves. Their teachers must actively involve adult participants in the learning process and serve as facilitators for them. Specifically, they must get participants’ perspectives about what topics to cover and let them work on projects that reflect their interests. They should allow the participants to assume responsibility for presentations and group leadership. Adults tend to be self-directed in their lives, although responsibilities with jobs, families, and other organizations can remove a degree of their freedom to act. Adulthood brings an increasing sense of the need to take responsibility for our lives and adults strongly resent it when others take away their rights to choose. This fact is clearly seen in educational efforts among adults. Finally, they must show participants how the class will help them reach their goals. They are self-directed, take responsibility for their own actions, and resist having information arbitrarily imposed on them.
2 Adults have accumulated a foundation of life experiences and knowledge, which may include work-related activities, family responsibilities, and previous education. They need to connect learning to this knowledge/experience base. To help them do so, they should draw out participants’ experience and knowledge which is relevant to the topic. The adult’s experience is a key resource in any learning effort. Adults have a greater reservoir of life experiences simply because they have lived longer and seen and done more. This is a critical distinction between adults and traditional learners. Consciously or unconsciously, adults tend to link any new learning to their prior learning, a body of knowledge that is rooted in their life experiences. They evaluate the validity of new ideas and concepts in light of how the idea or concept “fits” their experience. They must relate theories and concepts to the participants and recognize the value of experience in learning. They have an extensive depth of experience, which serves as a critical component in the foundation of their self-identity.
3 Adults are goal-oriented. Upon enrolling in a course, they usually know what goal they want to attain. They, therefore, appreciate an educational program that is organized and has clearly defined elements. Higher motivation is linked to the fact that most adult learning is voluntary. Adults are making personal choices to attend schooling, even when such schooling is tied to professional development or job skills. Whenever an individual is able to choose to learn, she/he is much more motivated to learn. Instructors must show participants how this class will help them attain their goals. This classification of goals and course objectives must be done early in the course. They are ready to learn. As most adult learners return to college voluntarily, they are likely to actively engage in the learning process.
4 Adults are relevancy-oriented. They must see a reason for learning something. Learning has to be applicable to their work or other responsibilities to be of value to them. Adults are particularly motivated to know and learn information that seems immediately applicable to their situation and needs. They tend to be frustrated with “theory” that needs to be stored away for future use or learning for the sake of learning. Therefore, instructors must identify objectives for adult participants before the course begins. This means, also, that theories and concepts must be related to a setting familiar to participants. This need can be fulfilled by letting participants choose projects that reflect their own interests. They are task motivated. Adult students returning to college attend for a specific goal and the primary component of their motivational drive tends to be internal.
5 Adults are practical, focusing on the aspects of a lesson most useful to them in their work. They may not be interested in knowledge for its own sake. Instructors must tell participants explicitly how the lesson will be useful to them on the job.
6 Adult learners want to be treated as adults. As do all learners, adults need to be shown respect. Instructors must acknowledge the wealth of experiences that adult participants bring to the classroom. These adults should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge and allowed to voice their opinions freely in class. They will not put up with the criticism or humiliation that schoolchildren often get.
QUESTION 2 ESSAY
2.1 The role of adult education and development in your society
What is adult education?
Adult education is the education aimed system to provide the opportunity to the adult ones who did not get the education, adult education gives mature once a chance to be educated and developed their skills and make them able to read, write and learn new things. Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systemic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitude or values. When you ask people “what is adult education?” most of them reply immediately – “night classes”, an uneducated person can never understand the importance of education and insufficient to contribute the growth of society and the community.
The education of adults is a multifaceted complex process, which encompasses many subjects and interest areas. It is broad and varied as those it serves. It encompasses Adult Basic Education (teaching basic learning and survival skills to the undereducated); continuing education efforts for personal and professional growth, and enrichment activities for the highly educated. It is designed for personal skill development, for enhanced career opportunities, or for enjoyment. It can involve a very short duration of time or several years of effort. Finally, it serves diverse of students and includes a varied population of adult teachers.
The role of adult education
Adult education plays an indirect but significant role in the educational as well as economic development of a nation/society. Adult education is an instrument for change. It helps to modify the behavior of individuals in the community in many ways. It helps to improve the critical thinking quality of the individuals. It modifies behaviors of people towards production through acquisition of knowledge and skills in relevant occupations. It develops individuals to respect to a standard. It modifies individual’s moral quality to an acceptable level by community members. It can be remarked that without adult education and adult literacy, it is not possible to have range and speed of economic and social development that makes it worthwhile in terms of values and welfare. Because it is not possible to impart all types of education to various categories of learners. No classroom education of adult learners has immense importance, particularly for a developing society, and a society with low levels of literacy, high illiteracy, and low development.
The development of adult education in a society
Adult education has made a huge change in some societies, not only in societies but nationally. The role of adult education in national development is multi-dimensional. Indeed, as are of the building blocks of human development, and not just a basic right, education, including adult education, is a foundation for progress in areas such as human capital, health, nutrition and the development of institutions and democracy. Therefore, the role of adult education in development can be apprehended through the complex relationships existing between all its forms and the economic, political, social and cultural determinant factors in a society.
It is now well established that, alongside health care, sanitation, and nutrition that improve people’s standard of living and productivity by reducing sickness and mortality rates and by increasing life expectancy, adult basic education, by equipping recipients with essential literacy and numeracy skills, yields high rates on investment, thereby enhancing labor productivity. An educated population also provides a more attractive investment climate. Formal education alone is not sufficient for playing this role as even those categories of the population who have had formal education and training might need to be updated and reskilled through adult education, mainly because today’s knowledge society tends to render previously acquired knowledge and skills inappropriate and obsolete.
To conclude the argument, Adult education has been often recognized, in theory, is necessary to enhance development, especially in an era of globalization, not only because it produces human capital, but also because it enables people to become well-informed citizens, capable of thinking critically and owning their destiny through active participation. Adult education aims to provide the knowledge that improves professional qualifications and to achieve civic, social, moral and cultural attitudes and skills for performing responsibilities and for progress in all spheres of life. Both adult education and community development have common aims and goals. Programmes planning in both are similar and both are concerned with improving attitudes, aptitudes, interests, skills, understanding, and appreciation. Though adult education seems more basic a prerequisite for community development i.e. with education, community members can plan, organize and execute programmes in the community
3.1 Three types of barriers experienced by adult learners
1. Social and economic barriers
2. Physiological barriers
3. Barriers caused by attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions
Examples of each barrier
2. Poor hearing
3. Fear of humiliation and failure
3.2 What is a barrier?
? A barrier to learning are things that make learning difficult. There are different kinds of barriers that make learning difficult which include barriers like: physical, social, economic, institutional and attitudinal ones, this kind of barriers exist inside the learner’s minds as attitudes or ideas.
? A barrier is something such as a rule, law, or policy that makes it difficult or impossible for something to happen or be achieved.
? A barrier is anything which makes it difficult for someone to do something.
? A barrier is an obstacle which hinders approach.
3.3 Overcoming each type of barrier
1. Social and economic barriers (time) – While it is hard to control what outside obligations adult learners may have, continuing higher education programs can make classes available at a variety of times in a variety of ways to make it less of a competition to obligations that already exist. Services, including admission, academic and financial aid advising, registration, and the bookstore should be available at times convenient to adults as well as traditional students. Also, the duration of the academic program provides significant inflexibilities.
2. Physiological barriers (poor hearing)
When one has a hearing loss, the quality of communication can be impaired. Understanding speech becomes a task which may result in frustration, exhaustion, depression and eventually lead to isolation. To overcome these barriers, an individual with a hearing impairment must use communication strategies. However, for communication strategies to be successful, one must be assertive. Suggest ways in which friends and family could assist to improve communication, such as:
1. Always face the person with a hearing loss when speaking
2. Speak clearly and with a normal volume.
3. Eliminate background noise whenever possible.
4. Don’t attempt to communicate from a distance.
3. Barriers cause by attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions (fear of humiliation and failure) – it is important to realize that in everything we do, there’s always a chance that we’ll fail. Facing that chance, and embracing it, is not only courageous- it also gives us a fuller, more rewarding life. However, there are few ways to reduce the fear of failing:
1. Analyze all potential outcomes
2. Learn to think positively
3. Look at the worst-case scenario
4. Have a contingency plan (plan B)
Start by setting small goals that will help build your confidence, by moving forward slowly but steadily you’ll begin to overcome your fears
? Self-actualization: This occupies the last level at the top of the triangle. This refers to the need to become all that one is capable of being to develop one’s fullest potential. The rationale here holds to the point that self-actualized employees represent valuable assets to the organization human resource which is a person’s desire to become everything he or she is capable of becoming—to realize and use his or her full potential, capacities, and talents.
? Esteem needs: This represents the fourth level of needs. It includes the need for self-respect and approval of others. Once individuals have satisfactorily met their need for love and belonging, they can begin to develop positive feelings of self-worth and self-esteem and act to foster pride in their work and in themselves as people. Before they can work toward self-esteem, however, they must feel safe, secure, and part of a group such as a class in school. Organizations introduce awards banquets to recognize distinguished achievements.
? Social needs: This represents the third level of needs. They are activated after safety needs are met. Social needs refer to the need to be affiliated that is (the needed to be loved and accepted by other people). These needs are met through satisfactory relationships— relationships with family members, friends, peers, classmates, teachers, and other people with whom individuals interact. Satisfactory relationships imply acceptance by others. To meet these needs organizations encourage employee’s participation in social events such as picnics, organizations bowling etc.
? Safety needs: This occupies the second level of needs. Safety needs are activated after physiological needs are met. Safety is the feeling people get when they know no harm will befall them, physically, mentally, or emotionally; security is the feeling people get when their fears and anxieties are low. They refer to the need for a secure working environment free from any threats or harms. The rationale is that employees working in an environment free of harm do their jobs without fear of harm.
? Physiological needs: Are the need at the bottom of the triangle and include the lowest order need and most basic. This includes the need to satisfy the fundamental biological drives such as food, air, water, and shelter. People must have food to eat, water to drink, and a place to call home before they can think about anything else. If any of these physiological necessities is missing, people are motivated above all else to meet the missing needs. According to Maslow organizations must provide employees with a salary that enable them to afford adequate living conditions. The rationale here is that any hungry employee will hardly be able to make much of any contribution to his organization.