Science Research AssignmentCOPDMark Raniel CresencioSNC2D1Mrs. FarlieJune 4, 2018180753133351400COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. It is a progressive lung disease characterized by increasing breathlessness because less air flows in and out of the airways in your lungs. The organ affected in this disease is the lungs. When we breath the air goes into our trachea. Then the air that passes the trachea will then lead into the bronchioles.
At the end of the bronchioles are small air sacs called the alveoli. These small air sacs allow the transformation of oxygen to carbon dioxide and is later breathe out of the lungs. The air sacs and airways are flexible, so when breathing in, every small air sac is inflated and when breathing out, it’s shrunken. In the course of COPD, the airways and the air sacs loses its flexibility, while the walls of many air sacs are destroyed, and the airway thickens, swells up and gets obstructed due to over production of mucus in them.
The signs/symptoms are constant coughing that cause excess production of phlegm (also known as the smoker’s cough), shortness of breath after doing daily activities, wheezing sound (due to the mucus blocking the airways), and chest tightness (happen same time as shortness of breath and wheezing).4752473119329800There are two risk factors for COPD, smoking and environmental factors (exposure to harmful pollutants in place of work such as chemicals, smut, or smoke, and for those who are expose with second hand smoking). People who are more susceptible to getting this disease are people that has prolonged exposure to these harmful pollutants in the workplace and can also be developed from independent usage of cigarette smoking.In order to confirm the diagnosis of COPD, this is based on the result of spirometry (test used to measure the airflow that travels through the lungs to see if they are functioning properly.), arterial blood gas analysis (sample of blood taken from an artery to quantify the level of oxygen in the blood) and Chest x-ray (rule out the problem of lungs).
There are treatments for COPD like lifestyle changes (stop smoking), medical treatments (bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids (steroids)), immunization such as flu shots, pulmonary rehabilitation program (exercise program, nutrition advice and psychological counseling), oxygen therapy (deliver oxygen to the lungs by using nasal prongs or masks), and lung volume reduction surgery (removal of damaged tissue in the lungs), and lung transplant. The prognosis of COPD aggravates slowly as time passes, especially if you continue to smoke. People who have COPD, are more likely to have lung infections. If the lungs are severely damaged, the heart may be affected as well. A person with COPD eventually dies when the lungs and heart are unable to function and get oxygen to the body’s organs and tissues, or when a complication, such as a severe infection, occurs. Based on research, there are eighty technologies that may improve the prognosis of this disease. These include 31 biomarkers (diagnosis of COPD that relies on blood samples, alternative samples, saliva and breath samples), 21 telehealth technologies, 6 wearable technologies (to monitor stable COPD through devices worn either across the chest or on the wrist), 6 imaging technologies, 4 vital sign monitors (monitor respiratory rate), 4 questionnaires (to know the patient’s smoking history and symptoms and for early diagnosis), 3 spirometers and 5 additional other technologies.
ReferencesNormal Lungs and Lungs With COPD. (n.d.
). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/copd#O’Brien, P. G., Lewis, S. L.
, Dirksen, S. R., Bucher, L., ; Heitkemper, M. M.
(2010). Medical-Surgical Nursing in Canada: Assessment and Management of Clinical Problems (2nd ed.). Toronto: Mosby Elsevier. Spirometry. (n.d.
). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/copd# COPD. (n.
d.). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/copd#Spirometry: Procedure, Normal Values, and Test Results.
(n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from https://www.healthline.
com/health/spirometrySchoenstadt, A. (n.d.). COPD Prognosis.
Retrieved June 2, 2018, from http://copd.emedtv.com/copd/copd-prognosis.htmlNew and emerging technologies for the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (n.
d.). Retrieved June 2, 2018, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1479972316636994