RELATED LITERATURE

RELATED LITERATURE.

According to Robbins (2010), marker pens as pens which have their own ink foundation and usually has a tip made of absorbent and pressed fiber and was first generated by Sidney Rosenthal in 1952. This marker pen had been unique of the normally used writing apparatuses for approximately fifty years. The key distinction is that dyes are soluble in water and an organic solvent, while pigments are insoluble in both types of liquid media. Dyes are used to color substrates to which they have affinity. Pigments can be used to color any polymeric substrate but by a mechanism quite different from that of dyes, in that surface-only coloration is involved unless the pigment is mixed with the polymer before fiber or molded article formation (Allen, 1971). Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries and a variety of other berry fruits are frequently used to produce a wide range of ink colors, comprising red or blue. Use hyacinth flowers to make a blue ink. Crush rose, lavender or hibiscus petals for a red or pink ink. Lilies of the valley, Artemisia and snapdragons can all be used to create a wide range of greens from a pale shade to a darker forest shade. Marigolds, daffodils and dandelion make a bold yellow ink. Steep the flowers in boiling vinegar or let them sit for a while in the liquid to obtain the color you want (Condy, 2018).
Based on the articles congregated in Caparas (2010), the Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract had been proven to be effective as a natural dye. Consequently, the Narra bark is capable of being an element for ink production and used to the need of creating new inks.
In accordance to the study, Thomson (2006) stated in his article “Narra (Pterocarpus Indicus)” that the heartwood of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) contains numerous red compounds, and used to make a red dye. The bark extract can be used for tanning. Tannin or tannic acid is the brown substance originated in the bark and leaves of trees.
The Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) it is inherent to Southeastern Asia and originate all over in the Philippine archipelago. It is used as alternative ink instead of using petroleum. It is a large deciduous tree which is very simply propagated from large cuttings. It is derivative from the trees and its alcoholic tincture that produces dark red color dye in wood because the Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) is well-known for its capability to take high sophistication.