realm, all of which are subsumed under the umbrella

 realm, how to create an approximately equal target text is of great significance. According to Pym (2010), “the relation between the source text and the translation is one of equivalence (equal value), no matter whether the relation is at the level of form, function, or anything in between.” In fact, the notion ‘equivalence’ “directly assumes that, on some level, a source text and a translation can share the same value (“equi-valence” means “equal value”), and that this assumed sameness is what distinguishes translations from all other texts” (ibid).    There are many theories sharing this assumption about equivalence all of which are subsumed under the umbrella category of “equivalence paradigm” (Pym, 2010, p. 6). This general category, in turn, divides into two subcategories, i.e. natural equivalence and directional equivalence. In natural equivalence, “things of equal value are presumed to exist prior to the act of translation” (ibid). Therefore, it does not make any difference whether one translates from language A to language B or the opposite way round. In fact, natural equivalence is “what different languages and cultures seem to produce in their own systems” (ibid, p. 12).       Accordingly, “in terms of this naturalism, the best translations are found when you are not translating” (ibid). Pym argues that this type of thought is employed when we quest solutions in similar texts which are non-translational target texts on the same topic as the source language (ibid). Despite this, theories of directional equivalence posit that directionality is a main characteristic of translational equivalence and that translations are the result of active decisions made by translators, not natural equivalence between the two languages (Pym, 2010). Pym (2010) describes the notion of directionality in those theories as follows: for these theories, if you translate from language A into language B, and then back-translate from language B into language A, the result in language A need not be the point where you started. Unlike the sub-paradigm of natural equivalence which d

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