Rates of the Department of Economic and Social

Rates of solid waste production are subject to certainvariables, such as population density, levels and types of economic activity,and the income level of the population (Al-Ansari, 2013).

In 2010 United Nation(2010) established that the rate of solid waste generated in low income countrieswas 0.9 – 0.4 kg/(capita. day), whilst the rates for middle and high-income countrieswere 0.5 – 1.1 and 1.1 – 5.

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07 kg/(capita. day) respectively (Al-Ansari, 2013).The rate of solid waste generated in SulaymaniyahGovernorate in 2009 was 0.69 kg/(capita· day) (Directory of Municipalityof  Sulaymaniyah city ). This value isconsidered very low and is unsatisfactory, compared with the waste generationrates for both Iraq as a whole and for Baghdad (the capital of Iraq), whichwere 1.01 and 1.47 kg/(capita· day) respectively.

This rate is also low incomparison with the international standard value of 1.5 kg/(capita· day) (IraqiMinistry of Municipalities and Public Works, 2009). The figures for thegeneration of solid waste per capita for Sulaymaniyah city would position it asmiddle income in relation to the figures of the Department of Economic andSocial Affairs of the UN in 2010 (Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities and PublicWorks, 2009; Al-Ansari, 2013). The total population of Sulaymaniyah Governoratein  2016 was 2084492 ( inhabitants(Kurdistan Region statistics office) based on the population growth rate of2.99%. According to (World Bank, 2015), the annual population growth of Iraq is2.

5% for years 2010-2014. The quantity of solid waste generated in SulaymaniyahGovernorate in 2016 was 604107 tonnes (Sulaymaniyah directory of municipality).Generation rate of solid waste in 2016 was 0.794 kg/(capita· day) in theSulaymaniyah city depending on calculation methods which are explained below.

The rate for Sulaymaniyah city as a function of population density. Based on theinformation cited in the records of the Ministry of Planning Sulaymaniyahstatistics office, an attempt was made to calculate the future expected of  solid waste in Sulaymaniyah city for the year2032. This was achieved using series of Equations using two methods as follow:


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