Question 2What were the major aims of foreign policy during the period?spread of communism, “world revolution” (Cantwell & Brady, 2012)1919 establishment Communist International (Comintern)Chinese Civil War involvement (1921-1927)militarily, financially supported, advised communist, non-communist belligerents1925 Chiang Kai-shekhardline anti-communist1927 Shanghai massacre, ended major Chinese Comintern involvementrelations with Germanyexploited resentment to French, Britishviewed principal nation for revolutionbypassed Treaty of Versailles, military training, Soviet weapons manufactureaided Russo-Polish War effort, ultimately unsuccessful1928 goal radicalisationattacked Social Democrats, especially Germany, left-wing divisionJoseph Stalin characterised Western nations militant, belligerentComintern supported Nazi Partyaimed public revolt, communist revolutioninstead contributed Hitler leading Germany1934 practically abandonedfailed incite communist revolutionnon-communist nations allied after 1933, 1934 admission League of Nationsnew fascism threat, union left-wingGermany, Italy, Japan declared Soviet Union adversary (Anti-Comintern Pact, Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact, Pact of Steel)Comintern left-wing alliance promotion, anti-fascism, contradiction previous policy1936-1939 Spanish Civil War involvementpro-Republican, supplied 40,000 soldiers, 2,000 airplanes (Cantwell & Brady, 2012)effort underminedStalin Soviet security over Spanish revolutiondesired Soviet Union protection from Western European anti-communism1939 Nationalist victory1943 Comintern officially terminatedpeace with foreign nations1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovskofficially exited World War I (WWI)afterwards focus Civil Warresultant foreign hatred, fear bred White Russian supporttrade, especially GermanyBolshevik/Soviet Government official diplomacy, international acceptanceconflict, also attempted undermining alliesexploited Great Depression, capitalism failure, promoted solitarinesspreparation for, outbreak of warEurope contradictory peace proposals, rearmament programmesRusso-German diplomacymilitary, economic strengtheningboth nations training, arms production1928 Kellogg-Briand Pactidea prohibiting war, preventing armed conflict62 countries, including Soviet Unionarmament cessation never realisedGreat Depression, fascism risehigh unemployment, massive financial losses, many countries devastatedradicalisation, especially Germany, Italy, Japancollective security, pacts, military alliances, fascism target1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pactestablished Eastern European spheres of influence, halved Polish territory betweenno western war front, more preparationWith which countries did Russia/the Soviet Union establish major relations?Britain1921 trade agreementreciprocal benefits1924 Russian government recognised as result1924 Anglo-Soviet treaty proposalfinances, mutual supportabandoned after controversial letter, claimed ulterior motive, government overthrowComintern activities, support 1926 British General Strikedisloyal connotation, wage issue, hardline anti-communist sentimentsresult 1926 official relations cutGerman invasion of Russia, official reestablishment amicable relationsLend-Lease promised 1.5 million tonnes US, British materiel before June 1942 (Cantwell & Brady, 2012)friendly Moscow-London relationship, direct contactGermany1922 Treaty of Rapallo, ideas reaffirmed 1926 Treaty of Berlin1920s “natural allies” (Corin & Fiehn, 2011), international rejectsGerman WWI guiltRussian/Soviet communism1923 onwards lesser Comintern involvementearly ineffective insurgences, eventually insignificantnoninvolvement allowed stronger relationsMay 1933 diplomacy officially brokenno longer allies, Adolf Hitler believed communism, fascism opposites1933-1937 low-level economic, political talks1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Pactsigned 19 Augustmajor Soviet foreign policy basis before 19411941 Operation BarbarossaGerman invasion of Russiaall ties broken, Soviet Union at warUnited StatesOctober Revolution, Civil Warperceived infringement international norms1920s small private trade, technology aid, other commerce1933 official relationsdirect response German relations breakdown, uncertain German, Japanese foreign policy objectives1939 invasion of Poland, Russo-Finnish War (Winter War)relations strained, Soviet motives criticisedadversary, despite not officially Axis1941 German invasion of RussiaLend-Lease, 1.
5 million tonnes US, British materiel June 1942 promised (Cantwell & Brady, 2012)friendly Moscow-Washington relationship, direct contactSoviet Union officially Allied, neutrality no longer claimableHow did legal factors such as treaties or pacts contribute to the success or failure of Russian/Soviet international relations?1918 Treaty of Brest-LitovskRussia formally withdrawn WWIanimosity, Civil War foreign interventionRussia secluded, alone before 19221922 Treaty of Rapallo, 1926 Treaty of Berlinconceptually reset financial obligations, diplomatic tensionspractical economic, military alliancemutual war neutrality, repel third-party attack (Berlin)ended both countries’ solitarinessdid not end political tensions1925 Lorcano TreatySoviet desolation fears, Germany stronger neighbour relationsencouraged Treaty of Berlin, better Russo-German cooperation1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pactdiplomatic surprise, unpredictedworld criticism, especially Britainmore after invasion of Poland, Winter WarLeague of Nations debarred Soviet UnionWas Russian/Soviet foreign policy more based on ideology or pragmatism?1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovskfulfilled Bolshevik peace pledgeCominternaim propagate communism worldwidelong-term failure, Vladimir Lenin reconsidered foreign policy approachStalin focused “Socialism In One Country” (Corin ; Fiehn, 2011), worldwide secondaryleft-wing cooperation critic, German Social Democrats “social fascists” (Corin ; Fiehn, 2011)disunity, rise right-wing, far-right (especially Nazism, Hitler)1920 Russo-Polish Warrepelled Polish invasion, unsuccessful Warsaw capture”peaceful coexistence” Lenin’s only optionrelations with GermanyCivil War Whites, European powers against Redsinternationally alone, feared Western invasion, revolutionary communism fallLenin believed international relations normalisation only way for socialist survivalrepelled initial invasion threats until Hitler1933 US relationsRusso-German relation souring reactionuncertainty over German, Japanese aims, regional aggression1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pacttemporary, defensive naturefewer war fronts, armed forces more preparation timecounteracted distrust allies’ ability repel German forces, especially British, FrenchStalin practically adaptablegood of Soviet Union only carerecognised discussion both sides meant more beneficial conditionsdistrust British, French responses Germany, equivocation, appeasementultimately strongly more pragmatic, especially Stalin eraTo what extent did change in Russia/the Soviet Union occur due to international relations?restored reputationreclaimed acknowledgement pre-Revolution power, major European countryinternational accepting post-Civil War government1933 US acknowledged, former stronghold against communismanti-communist front limited, Soviet Union not under direct threat (before 1933)Comintern activities threatened chances, traditional diplomatic interactions more fruitfultrade opportunitiesbetter foreign reputation, perceived trade ability, opportunitiestrade agreementseventual worldwide recognitionGerman cooperation, military, industry benefitteddelaying war, creating regional securityGerman cooperationmateriel production, especially aircraft, gas, tanksjoint German training, developed war tacticscommunist revolution opportunityreduction war fronts, more preparation time until invasionvarious regional pacts, military alliancesconcept collective securityprotection rising fascism, international recognition efforts againstultimately paper tiger, failed prevent German invasionsWhat were the most significant parts of Russian/Soviet foreign policy or international relations?1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovskno longer WWI belligerentcriticised, gained international hostilityCivil War international involvementbecame pariah, alone international stage1920s-1930s relations, treaties with Germanyboth no longer international pariahsmateriel, war training, economic collaborationprevented unified capitalist, anti-communist front, lower risk to Soviet UnionSoviet security, major contributorrelations with USbroke down anti-communist bastion, no capitalist threatlater provided Lend-Lease1.5 million tonnes materiel to Soviet Union by June 1942 (Cantwell ; Brady, 2012)Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pactunexpected alliance, distrusted West, especially France, Britainavoided German belligerency, fewer separate war frontsinfluence area establishmentFinland, Baltic States, east Poland Sovietcontributor Winter Warultimately delayed warpoor Winter War performance, initial ideological, cultural conflicts persuaded Operation BarbarossaQuestion 3The first major change in the international relations of Russia was the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. This brought Russia out of World War I, however in the aftermath of the Russian Revolutions, especially the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War began and its former allies, dreading Bolshevism and having felt betrayed by the Russian retreat from WWI and subsequent dishonouring of tsarist debts, sided with the White Russians in the new war. Despite the Red Russians gaining victory in the end, thereby preserving the revolutionary government but also leaving the new Soviet Union without international partners or official recognition.
The first major breakthrough for the Soviet Union came in the form of new relations with the postwar Germany with the Treaty of Rapallo, signed on 29 July 1922. Its goals, which were reconfirmed with the Treaty of Berlin in April 1926, stipulated the revocation of diplomatic animosity and financial obligations, but in reality signalled the beginning of a much more productive relationship. It led to the establishment of powerful military and economic partnerships, as well as the Soviet Union and Germany becoming more acknowledged on the international level. It also resulted in the countries gaining military hardware and experience, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles in the case of Germany.With a new government in the Nazi Party, led by Adolf Hitler, Russo-German relations were officially brought to an end in May 1933. With its foreign policy, and that of its neighbours, in disarray, the Soviet Union initiated relations with the United States in November of that year.
While small-scale commerce had been occurring even when their relations were not as amicable, the recognition by the United States of the Soviet Union also brought an end to the ideological battle between the two, the US having been a long-standing stronghold against communism. This contributed strongly to the Soviet Union’s admission into the League of Nations in 1934.However, only six later the Soviet Union astonished the world community with the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, authorised on 19 August 1939 as a result of the threat of fascism, especially from Germany, the volatility of the European continent and Joseph Stalin’s distrust of Britain and France, especially after their leaders appeased Hitler and ceded Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland in 1938, The agreement, which not only specified mutual neutrality but also defined their spheres of influence, gave the Soviet Union both enough time for its armed forces to prepare for inevitable war with Germany but also allowed the invasion of its neighbours, including Finland. However, in what would become the Winter War, Soviet forces, superior in both numbers and technology, gained only a pyrrhic victory, influencing Hitler to arrange and commence Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of Russia, in June 1941.Operation Barbarossa had several drastic effects for the Soviet Union. It not only marked its official entry into World War II, but also prompted offers of aid from the United States and Britain, who extended diplomacy and the Lend-Lease programme to the Soviet Union.
With its acceptance of assistance, the Soviet Union was formally an Allied Power, a position maintained until the end of WWII and the beginning of the Cold War.