Q the organization towards superior. 2. The Neo-classical

1. A large e-commerce company has recently broken off talks for a potential
sale. The company has had infusion of fresh funds through a sale. Encouraged by
the development; the company is now looking to restructure themselves. You are
required to discuss various approaches to Organization Structure and suggest an
appropriate approach with reasoning.


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The various approaches
to Organization Structure

1. Classical Approach
(Theory X):

contributors who developed established way to deal with hierarchical procedures
are Frederick Taylor Henri Fayol. Accentuation is on basic factors and
capacities or exercises to accomplish the targets. Weight on specialization and
co-ordination, and hierarchy of leadership encourages co-ordination and

Taylor (1917) created logical administration hypothesis that is known as
Taylorism toward the start of this century.

hypothesis had four key columns:

Division of work

Scalar and useful procedures, for example, solidarity of summon, hierarchy of
leadership, assignment of expert, characterizing duty and responsibility.

Structure-line and staff.

Span of control.

classical theory has important understanding into the idea of the organization.
The hypothesis focuses on the structure of formal organization ignoring the
interaction of individual identity, casual or social gatherings and
intra-organizational clashes. The classical theory (Theory X) sees association
as a structure which revolves around work and not around individuals.
Hypothesis X sees man as a financial being, brings about carrot and stick way
to deal with inspiration.

classical approach had faith in dictator and autocratic managerial style.

Fayol was additionally real donor of Classical Theory. Henri Fayol has
divergent perspective than Taylor and he concentrated on the chief as opposed
to the specialist and he stressed in regulatory highlights in the organization.
Fayol set up five authoritative capacities: (1) Planning; (2) sorting out; (3)
instructing; (4) organizing; (5) controlling. These perspectives show that
Fayol worried in ordering and controlling the organization towards superior.

2. The Neo-classical
Approach (Theory-Y):

approach reflects human relations development and in addition behavioral
science approach. It ponders intentions, supervision, gathering and intergroup
practices. It calls attention to that compelling co-appointment of exercises is
unimaginable without the eager co-operation of individuals.

theory propagates individuals arranged organization structure which will
incorporate casual and formal organization (popularity based/participative
management style). Two ideas of Theory-Y approach are individual and work
gathering, i.e., inter personal relations and requirement for two route
communication in the organization requested uncommon consideration in creating
adapted hierarchical structure


Focused on part of easygoing associations as workplaces of social change (Informal

Division of work Neo classical theory made motivational hypothesis and theory
of co-ordination and leadership. Human issues are caused by nonattendance of
understanding of human lead in organizations.

3. Behavioral science

approach utilizes methods and techniques of social sciences for example, brain
science, social science, social- psychology and human sciences for the
investigation of human conduct. This approach advocates that dealing with an
organization includes completing things and through individuals and the
investigation of management must be fixated on individuals and their relational
relations. It accentuates motivation, singular drives, group-dynamics,
authority, bunch elements and so on.

4. Modern organizational

approach defines organization as a system and furthermore considers the effect
of condition on the viability of the organization. This theory has three
approaches in particular.

Systems approach

Contingency approach and

Multi­variate approach.

Systems approach:

approach is based on the view depends on the view that an association is an
open framework made out of between related and inter­dependent components. The
association is an open-versatile framework interfacing with its own particular
condition. The notable highlights are:

Environmental impacts on structure,

Adaptability (i.e., reacting to change),

Efficiency and viability,

Emphasis on human esteems,

Emphasis on between relationship and between reliance of sub-frameworks,

Integration and co-appointment of all sub frameworks into the aggregate

Attention is paid towards the general adequacy of the framework as opposed to
the viability of the sub-frameworks.

Contingency approach:

is concerned with the investigation of particular associations with their
outside surroundings and the reception of a reasonable structure to meet the
prerequisites of the circumstance. The accentuation is on the need to adjust
the association to the request of evolving innovation, requirement for
development creating from ecological and basic leadership vulnerability. This
approach proposes that “There is nobody most ideal approach to deal with
any of the administrative issues and there is nobody best hierarchical
structure to suit all circumstances.”

salient features are:

Situational factors assume an essential part in the plan of hierarchical
structure and a reasonable administration style

The determinants are (I) Size of the association: Bigger the size, higher the
intricacy, (ii) Interaction require: free stream of correspondence required.

Multivariate approach:

approach is an alteration of the possibility approach. It sees the association
as comprising of four cooperating factors in particular:



Technology and

People-Interactive means an adjustment in any one variable consequently creates
a change in different factors. The associating factors are:

Task-Basic business

Structure-System of specialist, work process and correspondence

Technology-Tools and types of gear

People-(Actors)- People and their practices.

can viably start in any one variable as individuals are re­oriented, structure,
errand and innovation can be changed. Figure underneath outlines the
multi-assortment approach to organizational theory.

                                                            2. Structure                




                            1. Task                                                       3. Technology




                                                              4. People


technology improves (i.e., computer numerically controlled machines, robotics,
automation) there is a need to change relationship building abilities and
hierarchical structure and undertaking will likewise change.

the event that individuals are re-arranged (new work compel), structure,
undertaking and innovation will likewise change.


large e-commerce company should adopt Six Box organizational model.

six-box display is included the accompanying parts (boxes):

Purposes: What
‘organizations’ would we say we are in?

Structure: How would we
isolate up the function?

Relationships: How
would we oversee strife (facilitate) among individuals? With our advances?

Rewards: Is there a
motivator for doing every one of that necessities doing?

Leadership: Is somebody
keeping the containers in adjust?

Helpful components:
Have we satisfactory planning advances?

It gives attention to


Incentives and rewards,


Internal competitions
among organizational units,

Standards for



Delegation of

Organizational control,

Accountability and

Performance assessment.




















2. As the Manager HR in the company currently in a downturn, you realize that
managers took bolder decisions when things were better. You are required to
study the decision making pattern and suggest to the management an approach
that could facilitate effective decision making at tough times like these.


essence of management is making decisions. Directors are continually required
to assess choices and settle on choices with respect to an extensive variety of
issues. Similarly as there are distinctive administrative styles, there are
diverse basic leadership styles. Basic leadership includes vulnerability and
hazard, and chiefs have fluctuating degrees of hazard avoidance. Basic
leadership likewise includes subjective and quantitative investigations, and
some chiefs lean toward one type of examination over the other. Basic
leadership can be influenced by sane judgment, as well as by non-discerning
components, for example, the identity of the chief, peer weight, the
hierarchical circumstance, and others.

with data, chiefs can settle on better choices. Forefront chiefs, for instance,
who are provided with coordinate movement cost data, can better oversee
incomes, edges, and expenses. Associations can accomplish more consistency
between upper administration and lower-level chiefs by giving more data all
through the association.

Techniques for
Effective Decision Making

1. Brainstorming:
It is a combination of group problem-solving and discussions. It chips away at
the conviction that the more the quantity of thoughts, more prominent the
likelihood of touching base at an answer for the issue that is worthy to all.
It begins with the gathering producing thoughts which are then broke down, with
activity focuses in view of the discourses.

example, in the event that you have gotten another e-learning venture and are
thinking about a system to actualize in the course, you can take after this
procedure. Assemble a gathering of instructional creators in a meeting and let
them initially dissect the sources of info. From that point forward, you can
gather thoughts from each of them and take a ultimate choice.

2. Nominal group
technique: In a nominal group technique, the group
isolates itself into littler gatherings and produces thoughts. Conceivable
alternatives are noted down in composing and the colleagues additionally talk
about these to limit the conceivable decisions they might want to acknowledge.
Colleagues at that point talk about and vote on the most ideal decision. The
decision that gets the greatest votes is acknowledged as the collective choice.

with the above illustration, this gathering of instructional planners can be
additionally separated into littler groups. Each individual from the group
gives their thought and toward the end, every part votes in favor of the best
one. Toward the end, the possibility that picks up the most elevated votes
would be settled.

3. Multi-voting:
It begins with a series of voting where an individual makes his choice for the
shortlisted alternatives. Every individual can make one choice at any given
moment. The choices with the most extreme number of votes are conveyed to the
following round. This procedure is rehashed until the point when an
unmistakable winning choice is acquired.

example, from the above talked about case, each group would propose their
methodology before alternate groups. Also, alternate groups would vote in favor
of the one they incline toward best. The system that gets the most extreme
number of votes is viewed as last.

4. Delphi Method:
In this method of decision-making, the facilitator permits colleagues to
independently conceptualize and present their thoughts “namelessly”.
Other colleagues don’t have the foggiest idea about the proprietor of the
thoughts. The facilitator at that point gathers every one of the sources of
info and circles them among others for altering or enhancing them. This
procedure proceeds until the point when a ultimate choice is made. In the above
case, you can have a facilitator who gathers systems and passes them on to the
others without uncovering to whom the procedure has a place. Afterward, the
facilitator gathers the extemporized methodologies and picks the best one.

5. Electronic Meeting:
Here, the decision-making process happens essentially with the assistance of
innovation. For example, we can have a Skype call with the customer. Make a few
systems and examine them with the customer obviously in the Skype call; let the
customer pick the procedure near his desires.

basic leadership is a tedious procedure and before the group pioneer guarantees
the cooperation of the full group, he/she should ensure he has enough time and
assets for the basic leadership process and pick a strategy that is most
suitable in a given circumstance, remembering the profile of colleagues.

In order to maximize
the potential of a decision process, managers should take the following
important steps:

the group objective: By articulating the
measurements of the choice, including its significance, a director can decrease
vagueness and help assemble individual’s center their investigation, talks, and
consultations. A reasonable proclamation of the inquiry to be settled can help
bind together the gathering and make attachment that connects with individuals
and enhances joint effort.

a workplace: After the choice objective is
built up, the work space must take into consideration important, legitimate,
and open correspondence among bunch individuals. The director can help build up
standards about how individuals will communicate with each other to cultivate useful


clear desires and duties: By setting desires,
supervisors help colleagues comprehend their choice undertakings and parameters
(for instance, due dates). Directors may relegate parts to help structure the
choice procedure, build up a feeling of responsibility for parts of the
gathering’s work, and illuminate obligations.

assets: Managers must be careful that the
gathering has sufficient assets to assess choices and settle on its choice.
Fundamental alterations may incorporate giving extra staff, giving additional
time, or liberating individuals from other work assignments so they can
completely take an interest in the basic leadership process.

off the beaten path: After the chief has
built up the setting for the gathering to settle on its choice, the best thing
to do is venture back and let the group perform. The most valuable part now is
that of mentor, for example, if the gathering needs assistance overseeing
relational connections or if extra clearness is required around an option.


on awesome choices is a key initiative obligation. On the off chance that we
pick the wrong basic leadership style, we could confront a fiasco. Pick the
correct style and we’ll settle on choices speedier and all the more successfully.
















3. As the Chief Mentor and Coach of the company you are required to mentor and
coach the High performers of the company as part of their success plan.

Explain the difference between a manager and a leader. Explain with examples
the different types of leaderships (minimum 2 styles).


leader is one who impacts the conduct and work of others in collective
endeavors towards accomplishment of indicated objectives in a given
circumstance. Then again, director can be a genuine supervisor just in the
event that he has got attributes of pioneer in him. Administrator at all levels
are relied upon to be the pioneers of work bunches with the goal that
subordinates enthusiastically convey guidelines and acknowledge their

Manager Vs. Leader



A person becomes a
manager by virtue of his position.

A person becomes a
leader on basis of his personal qualities.

Manager has got formal
rights in an organization because of his status.

Rights are not
available to a leader.

The subordinates are
the followers of managers.

The group of employees
whom the leaders leads are his followers.

A manager performs all
five functions of management.

Leader influences
people to work willingly for group objectives.

A manager is very essential
to a concern.

A leader is required
to create cordial relation between person working in and for organization.

It is more stable.

Leadership is

All managers are

All leaders are not

Manager is accountable
for self and subordinates behaviour and performance.

Leaders have no well
defined accountability.

A manager’s concern is
organizational goals.

A leader’s concern is
group goals and member’s satisfaction.

People follow manager
by virtue of job description.

People follow them on
voluntary basis.

A manager can continue
in office till he performs his duties satisfactorily in congruence with
organizational goals.

A leader can maintain
his position only through day to day wishes of followers.

Manager has command
over allocation and distribution of sanctions.

A leader has command
over different sanctions and related task records. These sanctions are
essentially of informal nature.


Charismatic Leadership

leadership is basically the method of empowering specific practices in others
by method for articulate correspondence, influence and power of identity.
Magnetic pioneers rouse devotees to complete things or enhance the way certain
things are finished. This is proficient by conjuring up energy in others to
accomplish an expressed objective or vision. Basically, the magnetic authority
style has its premise in a type of valor. This administration style is
practically of awesome cause.

The Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi,
is often regarded as one of India’s most charismatic leaders.

2. Autocratic

autocratic leadership style allows managers to settle on choices alone without
the contribution of others. Directors have add up to expert and force their
will on representatives. Nobody challenges the choices of absolutist pioneers.
Nations, for example, Cuba and North Korea work under the despotic authority
style. This administration style benefits workers who require close
supervision. Inventive representatives who flourish in aggregate capacities
loathe this leadership style.

This leadership style is usually employed by military commanders. North Korean
dictator Kim Jong-un exemplifies
this leadership style.















Explain any one of the Traditional motivational models and give them examples
to discuss.


motivational model: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Model

to Maslow, people are propelled by unsatisfied requirements. As each of these
requirements is altogether fulfilled, it drives and powers the following need
to rise. Maslow gathered the five needs into two classifications –
Higher-arrange needs and Lower-arrange needs. The physiological and the
security needs constituted the lower-arrange needs. These lower-arrange needs
are for the most part fulfilled remotely. The social, regard, and
self-realization needs constituted the higher-arrange needs. These
higher-arrange needs are by and large fulfilled inside, i.e., inside a person.
Subsequently, we can infer that amid blast period, the representatives bring
down request needs are essentially met.

hypothesis depends on the suspicion that there is a pecking order of five needs
inside every person. The desperation of these necessities shifts.

five needs are as follows-

needs- The physiological needs of any
individual might take first priority. These are the fundamental needs of air,
water, sustenance, attire and haven. At the end of the day, physiological
necessities are the requirements for fundamental amenities of life.

needs- These needs begin to overwhelm the
person’s conduct just when his physical needs moderately fulfilled. Such needs
are identified with man’s want for a specific measure of wellbeing and security
in his life, his trying for an anticipated and predictable condition where
there is no bad form or inclination. Security needs incorporate physical,
ecological and enthusiastic wellbeing and insurance. For example Job security,
budgetary security, insurance from creatures, family security, wellbeing
security, and so forth.

needs- The third layer of human needs
identifies with the mental part of people. Social needs incorporate the
requirement for adoration, warmth, mind, belongingness, and kinship.

needs- Esteem needs are of two types: internal
esteem needs (self- respect, confidence, competence, achievement and freedom)
and external esteem needs (recognition, power, status, attention and

need- This include the desire to end up what
you are equipped for getting to be/what you can possibly move toward becoming.
It incorporates the requirement for development and self-satisfaction. It
likewise incorporates want for increasing more learning, social-administration,
innovativeness and being stylish. The self-realization needs are never
completely satiable. As an individual develops mentally, openings keep
springing up to keep developing.


noticed that the request in which these necessities are satisfied does not
generally take after this standard movement. For instance, he noticed that for
a few people, the requirement for confidence is more vital than the requirement
for affection. For others, the requirement for innovative satisfaction may
supersede even the most fundamental needs. Taking everything into account, the
Abraham Maslow’s hypothesis is essential and has an association with capacity
of HR. Physiological need is the essential needs that everybody need to perform
at that point will continue to alternate needs that is security needs that
everybody feel safe in accomplishing something and dependably be cautious and
afterward social needs that urge individuals to speak with everybody and as far
as anyone knows don’t need to feeling bashful and everybody ought to have high
confidence and the last one is self-completion.


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