Physiological memory”. Diabetes has an impact on the human

Physiological Disorders and their Care

Task 1

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As a
part of my studies I have to produce evidence of my understanding of two
different types of physiological disorders. I have chosen type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer’s
disease (dementia). Type 2 diabetes occurs when the human body cells do not
react to insulin it creates or because the human body does not produce enough
insulin. Alzheimer’s disease is a common form of dementia; NHS choices (2018)
explains that ”dementia is a progressive neurological disease which affects
multiple brain functions including memory”.

Diabetes
has an impact on the human body systems and functions. The five main body
systems affected are: digestive system, endocrine system, urinary system,
nervous system and muscular system. Diabetescouk (2018) explain that the
digestive system is affected when the nerves controlling the stomach are
damaged by high blood glucose levels this means the digestive system will not
work as normal. Also the endocrine system is affected by having high blood
glucose levels as the body is unable to respond to insulin effectively. The
presence of glucagon also raises blood glucose levels as the body is less able
to respond to it. As a result the pancreas needs to produce more insulin to
lower blood glucose levels. In addition the urinary system is also affected because
if the blood has too much glucose then the kidneys will work hard to remove the
glucose from the blood in urine. This could damage the kidneys. Furthermore the
nervous system is affected because if an individual has high blood glucose
levels for a long period of time they could potentially damage blood vessels
and this therefore leads to nerves being damaged which then causes loss of
feeling in the body. Finally the muscular system is affected by diabetes
because muscles use glucose from the blood (which lowers blood sugar levels).
This means if the body doesn’t have enough insulin in the blood then the glucose
can’t fuel the muscles.

The
primary causes for diabetes include the pancreas being unable to produce the
insulin needed in order to maintain a normal blood glucose level. The second
primary cause is because of insulin resistance (this is due to the fact that
the human body can’t use any insulin produced from the pancreas). Other factors
that cause or improve the risk of diabetes include genes, weight and age. If
somebody is obese or overweight they then have a higher risk of getting
diabetes because body fat increases insulin resistance. Similarly older people
tend to exercise less and therefore gain more weight which could cause
diabetes.

The
signs and symptoms for diabetes consist of:

Ø  Injuries that heal slowly (e.g cuts), because diabetes
effects the nerves which results in poor blood circulation. Blood is needed to
repair damaged skin and therefore it will not be repaired as quick.

Ø  Being/feeling tired due to hyperglycaemia

Ø  Unexplainable weight loss as the body begins using its own
fat for energy instead of glucose.

Ø  Lens in the eye is dry causing blurred vision

Ø  Urinating more frequently

Ø  Being/feeling thirsty due to high blood glucose levels.

Ø  Being/feeling hungry because the body can’t convert food
into energy so you constantly feel hungry.

Ø  Headaches because blood sugar levels aren’t normal.

Alzheimer’s
disease has an effect on the human body systems and functions. The three main
body systems affected are: nervous system; digestive system; and muscular
system. Livestrong (2018) explain that the nervous system is affected by
Alzheimer’s disease because amyloid plaques composed of specific proteins and
pieces of dead brain cells progressively accumulates in the brain tissue. Also
tau (brain protein) accumulates abnormally causing brain cells to malfunction
and eventually die. The loss of functioning brain tissue initially causes
problems with memory and learning. Furthermore the digestive system can also be
affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Firstly swallowing difficulties occur, this
means individuals have difficulty eating without choking. Swallowing
difficulties lead to accidental entry of food or liquids into the airways; this
is frequently the onset of pneumonia. Finally Alzheimer’s disease also has an
effect on the muscular system. Individuals lose the ability to move muscles in
purposeful ways. Some individuals lose the ability to walk. Additionally some
patients lose the ability to maintain posture to sit in a chair safely.

The
main cause of Alzheimer’s disease is because the structure and function of
parts of the brain are affected by atrophy (parts of the brain are shrinking).
Other possible causes include: having down-syndrome; cardiovascular disease,
age, head injuries and family history/genes. Alzheimer’s disease is genetic and
therefore you have the chance of getting the disorder if someone in your family
has also had Alzheimer’s disease. Head injures can damage the structure and
function of parts of the brain this means it’s possible for Alzheimer’s disease
to develop.

The
signs and symptoms are:

Early stage:
Ø  Being
forgetful about object names, places, events, conversations.
Ø  Not
wanting to take part in new activities
Ø  Forgetting
what you have said so repeating yourself.
Ø  Struggle
to make decisions
 
 

Middle stage:
Ø  Trouble
sleeping
Ø  Repeating
actions
Ø  Becoming
easily confused
Ø  Hallucinations
Ø  Delusions
Ø  Speech
problems
Ø  Mood
swings
 

Later stage:
Ø  Loose
ability to talk
Ø  Urinary
and bowel incontinence
Ø  Dysphagia
(problems eating and swallowing)
Ø  Potential
weight loss or gain.

The
procedures used to diagnose diabetes are simple. Firstly a glycated haemoglobin
test (HbAlc) can be used which shows the average blood glucose levels for the
previous 3 months. This test can be taken at any time except from during
pregnancy. If blood glucose levels are too high then it shows diabetes is the
problem. This test is important in diagnosing diabetes as it specifically shows
if the problem (being unable to produce insulin to lower blood glucose levels)
is there, this means a professional can be positive they understand what the
disorder is. A haemoglobin test is beneficial as it quickly gets an outcome for
a service user. Secondly a glucose tolerance test (GTT) can be performed which
shows if the human body is struggling to produce insulin. A blood sample is
taken before consuming a glucose drink and then is compared to a blood sample
taken two hours after the drink is consumed. You cannot eat or drink certain
foods and drinks for 8 hours before the test. If the blood glucose levels do
not decrease after two hours or originate to to the persons normal blood
glucose levels then it shows the body can’t produce insulin or the insulin is
ineffective. This means the test is important in diagnosing diabetes as it will
show if the person’s insulin works properly so that professionals can be
positive they know what the disorder is.

In
addition the procedures used to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease are very
different. A mini mental state examination is used to determine if further
testing is required. This examination consists of memorising a short list of
objects and identifying the correct current date. This would help doctors and
specialist in their investigation of the problem for the individual. If the
individual struggles to memorise a basic list of items it shows they have short
term memory problems which would be useful in diagnosing the disorder as the
professional can then be certain it’s worth providing further testing. Also if
the individual is unable to recollect the day and month it could potentially
show how far the disorder has developed on the person which would help a
professional diagnose accurately. The benefit of a mini mental state
examination is that it helps direct professionals of the way forward on the
search to diagnosing a service user. Furthermore a brain scan can be performed
to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease which would be a computerised tomography scan
or a magnetic resonance imaging. This is important in diagnosing the disorder
because it would show physical damage to the brain. Specialists are able to
recognise from the damage or problems with the brain what functions are
effected and therefore they are able to be more accurate with their diagnosis.
For example the brain scan should show that memory is effected. One of the best
benefits of a brain scan is that it shows how bad the damage to the brain is
which helps professionals see how bad the disorder is for the individual. The
main way a professional would diagnose their patient with Alzheimer’s disease
is by taking a look at their medical history and their family’s medical
history. This is because Alzheimer’s disease is genetic. This is important in
diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease because if past relations have suffered with the
same disorder it is certain that the individual will be suffering with the
disorder.

In
comparison the diagnostic test for diabetes costs a lot less to preform
compared to the diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease. It takes more time to
perform a brain scan compared to a blood test which means it will be more
frustrating for service users to wait for. As a result of how complex a brain
scan is it requires more specialist staff and therefore more training. Diabetes
does not have a pre-test like Alzheimer’s disease does. The tests for diabetes
are simple and quick and easy; 1000’s of tests will be performed every day.
However the tests for Alzheimer’s disease take a lot more time and planning
which means only a few 100’s will be performed daily. As a result less people
will receive a diagnosis as quick.

Treatment
for diabetes is simple but takes a lot of will power. It is important that a
person with diabetes self medicates by making lifestyle changes. To begin with
if the individual is overweight then the individual needs to exercise regularly
in order to loose weight; this is because a large amount of fat tissue can
prevent insulin from working properly. The benefit of losing weight and giving
insulin a better chance to work properly means the individual with the disorder
will not need as much support and should be able to manage without other
treatments. Also the individual should eat healthy making sure they reduce the
amount of fat and sugar consumed as fat and sugar can increase weight dramatically.
This would benefit the individual because they will be more able to produce
insulin. Also they will be able to go without medications used to treat
diabetes. As well as this an individual should reduce calorie intake to loose
weight. It is only necessary to loose weight if the person is overweight. On
the other hand doctors can help to treat diabetes by prescribing medication.
NHS choices (2018) explains that the three medicines mainly used are:

1)    Metformin- to reduce the amount of glucose that the liver
produces and releases. Also helps the human body cells to be more responsive.

2)    Pioglitazone- helps more glucose be taken from the blood as
the body cells become more sensitive to insulin.

3)    Sulphonylureas- increases the amount of insulin the
pancreas produces.

The
benefits of medications is that it controls the person’s diabetes so that they
can carry on eating as a normal person would. Finally diabetes can also be
treated by having insulin injections to control blood glucose levels, which is
usually only prescribed if the person’s body doesn’t react to medication. The
benefit of insulin injections is that it is quick and easy to do, this means
treatment is faster and better for the person suffering with the disorder.

Support
is available for people with diabetes. First of all there are support groups
available where a person can share experiences and gain help on a problem they
have. This helps a diabetic because they can ask questions to other diabetics
and get knowledgeable answers. Additionally a person with diabetes who received
medication will have free prescriptions and eye examinations as this will help
them financially and encourage them to follow up treatment that they receive.
If a person can’t afford their medication then they may choose not to take it.
In some rare cases those whose diabetes has had a significant effect on their
lives will be able to claim disability and incapacity benefits.

Unfortunately
there are very few types of care available for a person with diabetes.
Initially a doctor can help by prescribing treatments and diagnosing. Being in hospital
can help an individual as staff can run tests in order to diagnose diabetes;
also a hospital is able to provide treatment for severe symptoms from diabetes.
Finally a diabetic clinic can help care for a diabetic and is perhaps the best
type of care because it is a specialist service and has the correct training
and experience.

There
is no knows cure for Alzheimer’s disease which means treatment can only reduce
the effects of symptoms or slow down the process. Medication is most common in
slowing down the progress of Alzheimer’s disease, and improving symptoms. Only
a specialist can prescribe medications for a person with Alzheimer’s disease,
however a doctor is aloud to prescribe medications if they receive the advice
from a specialist. Having medication to slow down the process Alzheimer’s
disease is beneficial because it gives the individual more time to spend with
family as they are ‘normal’, this helps their emotional needs and their
family’s emotional needs. On the other hand a care plan can be used to treat
Alzheimer’s disease as it puts in place support that everyone involved needs,
for the present and future. The care plan would consist of problems that are
likely to occur and the interventions that will be put in place to prevent or
stop the problems. A care plan would benefit people suffering with the disorder
because it helps put action into place immediately then when a problem occurs
or worsens it is solved, this way the problems are constantly handled
professionally. A way in which a person with Alzheimer’s disease could self
medicate would be by preparing for Alzheimer’s disease immediately after
diagnosis. For example having diaries and calendars to help memory and a list
of phone numbers near the phone for emergencies and also by labelling
everything to prevent anger and confusion. This may also help a person come to
terms with the fact they have got Alzheimer’s disease. This is beneficial as it
makes the individual feel prepared and come to terms with the disorder. Carmel
Thomason (2012) explains that ‘cognitive stimulation provides stimulation for
thinking, concentrating and memory, it should be routinely offered to people
with early stage dementia, and however people with mild-moderate dementia
should be given the opportunity to participate in group cognitive stimulation
programs’. I believe what Carmel explains is correct because she later explains
that ‘718 people with dementia were treated in small groups by doing
activities. All activities were designed to stimulate thinking and memory.
Improvements were compared with those without treatment and with people with
standard treatment. Those who revived cognitive stimulation scored higher in
cognitive function test. 1-3 months later improvement still showed.’

Support
for Alzheimer’s disease is simple but involves time and patience. Charities can
help support people living with Alzheimer’s disease. For example the
Alzheimer’s society and dementia UK. These charities train people to become
admiral nurses (specialist in dementia) to give Alzheimer’s disease patients
better care. They also provide advice and information along with the upmost
emotional support.  Family may require
support as well. They can use social media (for example talking point) or books
written about dementia in order to receive advice and have their questions
answered. If a person’s family has better knowledge then the individual will
receive better care.

There
are many types of care available to people suffering with Alzheimer’s disease.
To begin with family carers are available and most likely the preferred choice
of care because it allows the suffering to live at home where they feel most
comfortable. Likewise; community nurses are available to provide care for
people with Alzheimer’s disease, it is there duty to visit patients at their
homes and to provide care at their homes meaning a patient can still live at
home. They would do this by assessing the person’s needs at home and advising a
way in which a person’s quality of life can improve. Alternatively an
occupational therapist can set up adjustments that may be needed for an
individuals home in order to improve their needs for example if a person can no
longer walk then a stair lift would be provided. People suffering with
Alzheimer’s disease may need to live at a residential care home or nursing home
therefore receiving support from care workers or nurses this is necessary when
a person is unable to cook and clean for themselves. It would only get to this
stage if no family are available for support or if the individual requires 24/7
care.

The
types of carers and care settings for a person with Alzheimer’s is much
different to the types of care for a person with dementia. A person with
diabetes is able to live alone and can carry on with normal daily activities
whereas someone with Alzheimer’s disease needs support either 24/7 or
throughout most of the day and will struggle to carry out most daily
activities. On the other hand care for an individual with Alzheimer’s disease
and a person with diabetes are similar as both disorders require care from a
doctor who would prescribe both individuals with medication. Additionally
someone with Alzheimer’s disease would need a nurse and care worker to look
after them, however a person with diabetes will be able to not receive this
support as they are able to take care of themselves. A service user with
Alzheimer’s disease would need to use a care setting such as a residential care
home in order to live safely. A diabetic wouldn’t need to use a residential
care home because they are able to live alone. Furthermore a person with
diabetes will need help when taking insulin injections or perhaps may need
someone to do this for them such as a nurse. A person with Alzheimer’s disease
however would have their family or a care worker help them to take medication. Someone
who suffers with diabetes may perhaps need support from a optometrist at the opticians
if they suffer with eye problems due to the symptoms of their diabetes,
alternatively a person with Alzheimer’s disease doesn’t usually suffer with eye
sight problems because of Alzheimer’s disease therefore they will not need this
support.

In
conclusion diabetes has significant effects on a service user’s health and
well-being. A service user suffering with diabetes has to deal with several
symptoms effecting there physical health such as being more hungry and thirsty
than usual. The symptoms that diabetic people get effecting their physical
health has a impact on their day to day lives as they have to change their
routine and take time out of their day for treatment and check ups. Also a
diabetic has to take time to learn about their disorder which although it
improves there intellectual development it means they are constantly
researching and investigating problems they may have. Someone who has diabetes
may feel distressed about the symptoms they have or about the fact they have
the disorder which impacts their emotional development. Lastly having diabetes
means you have to be careful what you eat which then means individuals will not
want to socialise with their friends and go for meals in because they feel they
won’t be able to enjoy them as much this could lead for a diabetic to become
lonely causing problems for social development. On the other hand people with
Alzheimer’s disease have to face difficulty in doing physical activities as
they will forget how to do the most simplest of things, which effects their
physical development. Unfortunately people with Alzheimer’s disease will have a
very bad short term memory and will suffer with problems with their long term
memory which can be upsetting and negative for their intellectual development.
As dementia causes people to forget things, it is possible that a person with
Alzheimer’s disease could forget their family and friends and therefore become
confused and may feel isolated or lonely. This would affect their emotional and
social needs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 2

Diabetes care plan:

A
doctor would prescribe medications to treat diabetes and would examine the
service user to better understand symptoms to help with treatment. An optician
is able to take care of the eyes of a diabetic patient as diabetic patients
often have problems with their eyes relating to their diabetes. A dietitian is
able to provide advice on what foods and drinks shouldn’t be taken and what
should be, and also they can give recipes that are healthy and balanced to help
a person with diabetes control their weight and eat healthily. Family and
friends are able to encourage healthy eating and exercising regularly as they
can join in and make the diabetic feel less alone. Finally charities are able
to provide knowledge on how the service user can get along with life normally
and how people surrounding the service user can support the suffering.

The
advantages of medication is that the way insulin is used in the body is
controlled and works efficiently which means a diabetic can carry on with day
to day life as normal as long as they carry on to take their medication.
However it means having to remember to take the medication which some people
may forget to do if they are busy which a disadvantage is. Insulin injections
are good because they are quick and easy and provide insulin to his body when
needed to prevent more problems. However some people don’t like needles and
therefore will panic each time they have an insulin injection which is a
disadvantage. The advantages of the care a diabetic revives from family and
friends include making their lives more liveable and enjoyable and also it
helps them to be more independent from professionals. However a person may not
like receiving help from family and friends and it could impact on there self
esteem as they like to be independent this is a disadvantage to their care.
Medication to treat diabetes is cheap for a medication, which means it is
better to use as treatment. Insulin injections are slightly more expensive
which could be why they are not the preferred choice of prescription.

The
plan I have created would meet Marks health and well-being needs because it
provides advice on how to treat and diagnose the condition which improves
physical health overall. Also the care plan would be available to Mark to see
so that he can become more aware how the steps that services will take to treat
him which would improve his intellectual knowledge. Alongside this his emotional
and needs would be met because if the care plan is followed he will feel happy
about his treatment. Because the care-plan includes how family and friends
could help him it shows his social development can improve as he suffered with
diabetes as they are there for support and encouragement. 

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