OVERVIEWAs manyscholars, intellectuals and journalists claimed “this year of 2045, constitute the year of change and new step withlarge-scale has begun”. The world has experienced since the last 25 years asignificant impact on the competitivity, occasionally cooperative andrelationship between the states. The development of the technology has reachedits highest level leading therefore to a phenomenal economic, political andsocial success to some countries while it has depressed some others. What is more,it is a time that the African continent has became a new role model thatrepresenting a new challenge in the global system. Djibouti, an eastern Africancountry member of this continent continues to play a leading role thanks to itscomplex geographical situation but also being located to a region that is hometo international terrorism (namely the growing radical’s groups from Yemen, andSomalia).
Thepurpose of this paper is to examine the numerous challenges, threats andopportunities a changing environment presents to the government of Djibouti. Itwill attempt also to suggest the different policies suitable based on thegrowing global influence, the vulnerabilities that existing and also theeconomic growth. In order to understand what is really going on, we should haveto explain how the situation is affecting the values and the survival of thecountry, and its population.
DETAILED ANALYSIS1. SET OFSOCIAL VALUEIn anarea of globalization, security is a keystone of development and improvement toany states. Moreover, the world is undergoing toward rapid transformation yearafter year which are as deep as constant.
For the government of Djiboutiensuring a strategy that defines a global and all-embracing frame of referencein security matters, a strategy that envisages the unique characteristics ofthe risks and threats or a strategy that orients State’s actiontowards responding to current challenges by using the available resourcesflexibly and efficiently are fundamental for their survival. In the same time,the security of the world is characterized by unprecedent challenges, risks andthreats resulting from many interrelated factors which have a greater level ofcomplexity. Furthermore, the continent has been the focus of the internationalcommunity not only because of its spectacular development that attract the oldsuperpowers such as the United States and the Europeans as well as the emergingstates namely China but also the African continent imposed itself as the new “Eldorado”.
This situation has anational, regional and international repercussions for the government ofDjibouti as well as the others nations part of the continent. By taking intoaccount all this variation, the regime must be based on a comprehensive andintegrated approach that allow for active participation and be implemented inthe spirit of solidarity. More importantly, to prevent or even responds to anytype of threats but also to ensure the persistence of the state, it is vital tobuild up a security policy that encompasses all of the measures at national,regional and international level.
The most central features of this approachare: · A fundamental and far reachingcomprehension of the significance of security as an assurance of nationals’prosperity and the strength of the State itself is along these lines basic.· Actively working in the representation orthe participation of the Djibouti government in securing the plethora issues ofthe region as well as creating a peaceful international arena. Byproviding the sufficient effort to secure all this significant value, the statewill be secure against any risks but will need a strong and determined society.2. SITUATIONDEFINITIONOverthe past few years, the world has not just witnessed new discoveries andinventions in science and technology that has shaped the way in whichglobalization used to influence but it has showed that this was more likely theleading factor. In addition, the internet, the artificial intelligence andgenetic engineering transformed the international environment. Thus, theevolution of the human being into another level of existence has become morerealistic vision.
Indeed, the system in which the world was made for is gettingcomplex, difficult with tremendous consequences such as ecological catastrophes,social change, economic transformation but also increasing the fear that thistechnology will go into the hand of the wrong people (namely the terrorists’groups). As Gerald Doucet, World Energy Council has clarified that thissituation confused the question of “who is maintaining a leading position inglobal competition”. This rapid progress is only reinforcing the countries whohave been active in the globalized context. On the one hand, the United Stateswith its traditional position and the role in decision making, planning hasevolved into new phase.
With the subsequent change of the world that hasaffecting the economy, politic and social sphere, they are still able tomaintain their position of a principal actor who can achieve numerous things. Moreover,the concern of the American administration toward Africa is part of thewidening of their policy in this area of large-scale innovation. Partneringwith the states of this continent will allow a diversified export strategy thathas been made since ages but also to contribute the weakness of Chinainvestments, another actor that is holding a great influence in the market ofthe continent, and that could threaten the survival of the U.S. On the otherhand, China has been in the centre of attention since their rise over the pastyears. Thanks to their economic growth, and their military capacity they areimposing their will on the world, and pose a fear to the United States. It isfundamental to renew its capacities and adapt it to the current situation ofthe world by developing their technology skills and allowing their policymakersto ensure the dynamic spot in the international realm. The rise of China inAfrica has started since three decades and has displaced Africa’s traditionalpartners, like the U.
S and the European. As a result, the exports of China haveincreased considerably and making the continent a major source of investmentsand trade activities. In fact, the African continent turned not only to a placeof development, innovation in different categories explicitly in the economyand the politics fascinating the world but it has also brought new challengesthat are consequential of the foreign interference.
Hence, by making theenvironment more vulnerable to multiple issues. Therefore, the administrationof Djibouti is conscious about the alarming circumstances that the universal isgoing through. The objectives for implementing a security policy responding tothe environment are to make Djibouti the safest country with the highest qualityof life, enable the citizen to live in security and freedom but also toeffectively take a vibrant part in national as well as regional level. In orderfor the state to protect the territorial integrity, guarantee the well-being ofits citizen and ensure the continuity of the nation, it has to define astrategy that enhance the anticipation, protection and response capabilities inan increasingly complex environment like today.
With all these problems,national events or regional can have a global repercussion and represent a riskof the individual security. Located in the East of Africa, a region which liesat the mouth of the Red Sea that has made the country an ideal transhipment hubfor the international trade and offered long-term potential growth. The governmenthave to deal with numbers issues to reach its goal. At the national level, themajor concern must be based on the safeguarding of the stability within thecountry, and to formulate a smooth, well-prepared agenda that has to engage andempower the Youth and their families in becoming current and futuregenerations.
Thus, this National security is the critical next step in facingthat challenge. At the regional and international level, the situation isgetting more intricate. The strategic position in which the country is locatedhas created a feeling or a longing vis a vis of their neighbours in the regionthat sometimes is expressed in the form of diplomatic crisis (the case ofMAERSK during the spring 2023 has opposed the government of Djibouti toEretria). The intrusion of some powers such as the U.S. to limit the Chineseimpact in the region, but also to conduct certain actions against theradicalism of groups in Yemen and Somalia under their counter-terrorismprogram. Lastly, advancing all sectors of the country is part of the purpose ofthis National security.
Whether in the economy, ecology or social field, thegovernment is committed to strengthen their capacity and move it forward.Cyber-security and military development require to improve the position ofDjibouti in the international environment by operating, collaborating with thewhole region but also the international powers such as U.S.
, China and theUnited Nations.3. THREAT/PERCEPTIONS/IDENTIFICATIONSExistingtogether in the worldwide condition nearby risks and threats are othermultiplier factors which can create new challenges or increase and compoundtheir impacts. Destitution, disparity, ideological radicalism, statisticawkwardness, environmental change what’s more, broad abuse of new innovationare some of these components.
It is necessary to understand these situation cantrigger instability and intensify risks that have serious consequences not onlyto the interest of the government of Djibouti but also can create a vulnerableregion. Thus, the threats that can undermine the existence of theadministration are sort into categories: Ø The anger of the youth and theantagonism between the tribesLyingon the Bab-el Mandeb Strait, this tiny African nation has benefited from itslocation to develop its capacity and transform into an important attraction forthe biggest powers of the world. However, for the majority of the Youth, thesituation is not fair for everyone because the resources available isbenefiting the minority who are leading the country. Hence, the government mustimprove in order to avoid a revolution or a bloody situation. Even more, thecontinent is characterized by an significant growth of young people thatconstituted their workforce. In others words, not empowering them, is synonymof overthrown and fail like what happen three decades ago in most of the statesin the continent (the Arab Spring). It is also a vacuum that can serve theinterest of the enemies. Further, the disputes among the existing ethnicsgroups within the borders of the states are crucial and can lead to a greaterrisks.
The question of tribes is one the worst situation that can be witnessedbecause it contributes to a hatred feeling, and civil wars when it widen. Ø From Regional to international issues:large-scale risks Thegeographical position of Djibouti, its cultural and political ties have shapedthe role of the nation in the global environment. Both internal and externalsecurity have been reinforced by the help of China and also the income of theirstrong and well-appointed ports with international standards. As a consequence,it contributes largely to its economy, and allow them to diversify their allianceswith the international powers. However, this situation has also deepened thecontext of the region, home to one the world’s busiest shipping routes. For instance,the United States, long-time the leading partner of the region has seen their importanceweakening smoothly. They have started to establish a connection with othernations of the region in order to compete China, and as result put in jeopardythe ports of the country which is the lifeblood of its economy.
A fiercecompetition between this powers create a great risk for the survival of the nation.Eventually, economy and politics are the first that will experience thisindirect antagonism. The factors destabilising or affecting are many and vert heterogenous.Globalization has transformed the occasions, particularly in the monetary andbudgetary circle, inferable from the high level of reliance, requiring Statesand global associations and bodies to react quickly to the progressions thathappen. From now, the regime has to deal with the economic interdependence and the variety ofeconomic agents that can represent a risks. More importantly, in a region thatis considered to be instable, it is not unhabitual to witness the presence ofsome radicalistic groups in Somalia (Al-Shabab) and the north of the country,Al Qaeda in Yemen.
Terrorism, is therefore is an immediate risk to the life andsecurity of the population, it expects to undermine our majority ruleestablishments and risks our imperative and key interests, foundations, suppliesand basic administrations. Averting, blocking and vanquishing this treat ,whatever its starting point, is a need point of the nation. Above all, there aothers risks to avoid such as the Cyberthreats, which is a priority of thegovernment. Cyberattacks, regardless of whether as cyberterrorism,cybercrimes/cyberoffences, cyberespionage or hacktivism, have turned into a effectiveinstrument for assaulting people and open and private organizations. Factors,for example, their ease and insignificant dangers to the aggressor what’s more,their simple utilize, adequacy and openness clarify why the wonder isspreading. As a final point, energy vulnerability, is also an important casethat should have to be protected.
In a period of rapid growth and industrialization,the demand in energy reach a considerable rise that is affecting the less industrializedstate such as Djibouti, thus they have to implement a successful way ofmanaging this need. 4. POLICIES/ METHODS/ TECHNIQUES Wehave to keep in mind that all the tasks faced by the government of Djibouti possessan regional as well as international dimension. The aim of having a modernizedtechniques adapted to this environment is crucial because it will contribute tothe stability and security of problematic issues which are relevant to thecountry. Determining responses capabilities based on the risks and threats thatare harming the survival of the country. Policies that enable to the entirenation progress together and be recognized and valued internally as wellexternally is fundamental.
Youth Preparedness Education and Advancinga national unity:Thepriority of the government is empowering them through understanding of risksand knowing protective actions. They are the future of tomorrow, and makingthem a positive influencers is a wok that an active participation of all themembers of the society including the families. The purpose of the nation isvisible and clear, they have to provide important programs, activities or even createassociations to facilitate the integration of all in the community.
Buildinguniversities, giving them scholarships and making easier the insertion of thisyouth into the market. In this way, they are more educated, conscious about thesituation and can help the nation to move forward. By doing, the regime alsowant to create a strong cohesion inside the nation whereby merit is the onlyway to differentiate people but not upon race, or tribes. Is what we called ” the pacification of the society” .Combating TerrorismTocounterbalance the threat of terrorism and reduce society’s vulnerability toits attacks, the response of the government has to be based into collaborationwith the region powers (namely Ethiopia, Yemen and Somalia…etc) but also withthe international powers. Indeed, the response will be organised as following: · Anticipation: acting against fear basedoppression at its source. Move will be made at source inside the nation in requestto keep the enrolment of new fear based oppressors through the procedures ofradicalisation, guaranteeing the organized activity of the considerable numberof Experts for this reason.
Remotely, Djibouti will participate in creating an arrangementthat is concurred and composed with the equitable nations – ideally howevernormal activity inside the continent and will collaborate in battlingradicalisation at source. In the area of the internet, endeavours will be madeto guarantee that the Web isn’t utilized by fear based oppression as a methodsfor radicalisation, engendering and accomplishment of its points. · Assurance: diminishing our powerlessness.Around there endeavours will be gone for reducing open doors for conferringassaults by enhancing and expanding our national abilities both inside our ownparticular nation (by reinforcing the insurance of delicate targets andenhancing fringe control), remotely (where Djibouti’s interests are conveyed)and in virtual space (by reinforcing national data systems what’s more,frameworks).
· Interest: tending to fear based oppressoraction. Abilities for exploring and assembling insight on fear mongers what’smore, their activities will be advanced and enhanced by adjusting the essentialnational coordination, heading and supervision instruments with a specific endgoal to guarantee the best conceivable viability of the establishments and openforces. Measures will be embraced to keep the arranging of demonstrations offear based oppression, their financing and access to the materials expected toconfer assaults.