Ovarian siRNA based nanoparticale for therapy of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is the one of most deadly female malignancy and also the fifth cause of cancer deaths in women and divided to some histotypes like high-grade serous, low-grade serous, enddometrioid, clear cell and mucinous (1). This cancer often happens after the age of 40 and less than one percent of cases occur in less than 20 years (2). Ovarian cancer often progresses to the advanced stage without any symptom. under 25% of patients with advanced disease status survive up to five years, so they are known as the silent killer (3). Several therapies are available for the disease, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy and pharmacological drugs. Unfortunately, these treatments have not been very fruitful and have many problems, such as resistance to chemotherapy, toxicity, resistance to apoptosis, (4, 5). Several strategies have been proposed to overcome the mentioned problems such improve of delivering chemotherapy. This method is used to attach a powerful drug and encapsulate this anti cancer molecule with a nanoparticle (6). Drug-loaded nanoparticles contains several advantages, such as accumulation in cancerous cell because of increased permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles (7) so drug  co-encapsulation with nanoparticle can delivers drug with weak solution (8). Although using drug delivery by nanoparticle has many advantages, chemotherapy has some problems. there are some genes that involve in multidrug resistance (MDR) and in cancer cells are overexpressed. multidrug resistance protein 1 in ovarian cancer is responsible for chemoresistance with efflux of toxic drugs(1). So for chemotherapy is requied high amount of drugs to eradicate cancer cells while have some harmful effects on healty cells (9). Short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a doubel strand RNA which is complementary bind to specific sequence of mRNA and then degrade it (10). It uses as therapeutic agent for cancer Because cancer cells are commonly associated with high gene expression. Use of Nanoparticale mediated siRNA facilitate delivery of drug to the cancer cell (11). so combinational therapy include gene targeting of MDR with siRNA and chemotherapy of cancer seems to be effective (12). In this article we will review the progress and problems of drug delivery of  siRNA based nanoparticale for therapy of ovarian cancer and investigate some ways for delivery of drugs or detecting agents with siRNA to have a higher efficacy.

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