On optimally receive medication and getting a

On top of all of this, he also
shows difficulties adjusting to social situations when interacting with other
children. The way that Tom was diagnosed was through diagnostic criteria. This
is because in order for someone to be diagnosed with ADHD, they have to meet
the specific criteria. Using diagnostic criteria to diagnose people with ADHD
is a more straightforward way of addressing the disorder. In Tom’s case, he
meets all of the criteria because he exhibits the “symptoms” of inattention in
that he fails to give close attention to details in schoolwork, is unable to
sustain attention while performing tasks, does not listen when spoken to, is
often distractible, and fails to finish schoolwork. He also shows signs of
hyperactivity and impulsivity in his fidgeting, leaving his seat, and in his
having difficulty in playing, awaiting his turn, and thinking before he acts.
Impairment is present both at school and home, and there is evidence of
impairment in social and academic function (Lollar, 2008, 32-36).

is the most common type of treatment for ADHD, but there is also behavioral
treatment. The MTA conducted a national study of 579 children with ADHD and the
ages ranged from 7-9. The study assigned children to optimally receive
medication and getting a combination of parent training and child training
through a summer program/school intervention. A combination of these two
approaches went on for 14 months. The results of this study was that medication
is far more effective than behavioral treatment. However, the combination of
medication and behavioral treatment was superior to medication alone. Using
both of these tactics improved academic performance, social adjustment, and
parent-child relations (Sigelman & Rider, 2015,
519). Regarding medication, there are several different types. One type
is called stimulants. These are one of the most common prescribed medications
for ADHD. These types of drugs work by increasing the amounts of dopamine and
norepinephrine in the brain. By releasing these hormones, it improves
concentration and decreases the fatigue that is common in people suffering from
ADHD. Some examples of stimulant drugs are amphetamines, methamphetamines, and
methylphenidates. Another medication drug that is given to people with ADHD are
called non-stimulants. These types of drugs affect the brain in a different way
compared to stimulant drugs. Non-stimulants do not increase dopamine levels,
but do affect neurotransmitters in the brain which also helps with better
concentration. Examples of these types of drugs include atomoxetine, clonidine,
and guanfacine. A study was done to determine to what extent that clinical
response to methylphenidate (MPH) is affected by psychiatric comorbidities in
children diagnosed with ADHD. 267 children aged 6 to 12 years old diagnosed
with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-week medication
trial of MPH (Ter-Stepanian et al., 2010, 305-312). The children were assessed
by getting “ratings” from parents and teachers. Laboratory measures were also
used. Most of the children with ADHD were also present with comorbidities. There
were a few limitations to this study. There was a structured clinical interview
used to identify comorbid disorders, the study had a disproportionate girl to
boy ratio, and there was only one, moderate to low dose of MPH used. This study
also emphasized that ADHD is often accompanied by comorbid psychiatric
disorders, including ODD, CD, anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and
learning disabilities. According to the National Institute of Mental Health MTA
study, only 31.8% of children with ADHD had no other psychiatric comorbidity,
12% had ADHD and anxiety, 29.5% had ADHD with ODD or CD, and 24.7% had anxiety
disorders in addition to ADHD and ODD or CD (Ter-Stephanian et al., 2010,
305-312). Today, MPH is one of the most common medication used for ADHD. The
purpose of the study was to determine to what extent that clinical response to
MPH is affected by psychiatric comorbidities in children diagnosed with ADHD.
The children that participated in the study had to have been officially
diagnosed with ADHD by a pediatrician or a psychiatrist. Once the condition was
confirmed, the child was enrolled in the medication trial. There was a trial
intake interview, and it consisted of DISC-IV and a DSM-IV clinical interview.
The DISC-IV was necessary because it assesses common mental disorder in
children. The children who met the criteria for a major depressive disorder
were grouped together, and the children who met the criteria for comorbid
anxiety disorder were put into their own group. All of these children also had
been diagnosed with ADHD. After assessing all of this information, there was a
medication trial. Before the trial, all of the children who were already using
MPH underwent a washout period. The medication trial was a double-blind,
placebo-controlled, crossover medication. The trial consisted of 1 week being
on MPH and 1 week of placebo, including the weekends. The dosage of MPH was
determined by the children’s’ weight and had been divided into two doses,
morning and noon. There were no detectable differences between the true
medication and the placebo. To test the effectiveness of the medication,
laboratory measures were used. These measures included tests like CPT and RASS.
The CPT is a computerized test that evaluates attention. A child was placed in
front of a computer screen and different letters were flashed in random order.
The child was asked to press the space bar only when he/she sees a letter, and
to not press the space bar when the target letter X appeared. The RASS test is
structured to measure orientation. For a 15-minute time period, the child was
left alone in a room and was asked to perform skill-appropriate math problems.
In the room, there was a 1-way mirror where a trained research assistant sat
behind. The trainer recorded the child’s motor activity and off task behavior.
This evaluation went on during 30-second intervals for the whole 15 minutes. The
first assessment was taken on the morning of the initial assessment before
taking the pill. 45 minutes after the child took the pill, the tests were
repeated again in the same order. At the end of each week, the children’s
teachers completed the Conners’ Global Index-Teacher Form to evaluate the
child’s behavior in school. The findings of this study concluded that the
presence of CD or ODD in children diagnosed with ADHD do not interfere with
favorable response to MPH (Ter-Stephanian et al., 2010, 305-312). The children were
all diagnosed with ADHD, and the MPH medication did help reduce some symptoms.
All of the children’s’ CPT and RASS scores improved throughout the week as
well. Research studies like this one are constantly being used to test
different ADHD medications.

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summation, ADHD is a neurobiological condition that affects the brain and the
condition has a wide variety of symptoms. These can range from inattention,
hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Through research, there has been an association
between family life and ADHD.  Also,
genetics can play a role in the development of ADHD. Children of parents with
ADHD tend to have more severe symptoms of the disorder compared to children
without an affected parent (Agha et al., 2013, 369-377). Family conflicts and
different parenting styles have been proven to have an effect on the
development of ADHD in children. There are many different types of medications
given to people diagnosed with ADHD. Stimulants and non-stimulants are two of
the main types. Research shows that methylphenidate, a stimulant drug,
significantly decreases ADHD symptoms. There is no cure for ADHD, so these
types of medications are prescribed to reduce the symptoms of the disorder.


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