New Nagara bhavi, Bangalore. Using a sample

New Media and Mass Communication
ISSN 2224-3267 (Paper) ISSN 2224-3275 (Online)
Vol.27, 2014
Effects of Advertising on Consumer Buying Behaviour : With
Reference to Demand for Cosmetic Products in Bangal ore, India

Akwasi Ampofo
University of Madras, Chepauk, Chennai 600005. Emai l: [email protected]

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The study seeks to examine the effects of advertisi ng on consumer buying behaviour considering demand for
cosmetic products by residents in and around Nagara bhavi, Bangalore. Using a sample of 100 respondents of
mostly the young, we ran regressions and found that advertising does influence expenses incurred on cosmetics
products but much influence on the purchase of cosm etic products results from one’s income or pocket money
available, and other factors like price of the prod uct, the brand and other people’s recommendation co ncerning
the product.
We concluded that, advertising satisfies the needs of the firm and the wishes of consumers. Its role c annot be
replaced by any other means. Therefore firms must s trategize and know when and where they should adver tise.
The consumers need to be informed about products an d until that is done, the products of firms will still be in
stores with no demand for them.
JEL Classification: M37, D12
Keywords : Advertising–impact, Consumer behaviour–Bangalor e, Cosmetic products—demand, Cosmetics
1.0 Introduction
Consumers are final end user of products. They keep the production cycle moving. Consumers do play a v ital
role in the economic system of any nation, thus, an y nation will face crisis if consumers don’t have the effective
demand for goods produced.
Consumers demand different commodities based on the ir taste and preference for them. Awareness of good
influences consumers purchase of that good. Other f actors that influence one’s taste and preference for a good
are psychological and environmental. Taste and pref erence for a good change overtime. Awareness of a p roduct,
thus, advertisements, play a role in influencing th e taste and preference of consumers’ choice.
Consumers are known to be rational with regard to t heir purchases, wanting to maximize their satisfaction when
it comes to consumer goods. A consumer will theref ore not purchase a commodity whose price is above the
additional satisfaction that he derives from the good. How much of a good demanded, depends on the
satisfaction the consumer gains from spending extra money on the good. Rational consumers will spend o n a
good till their gains equal the cost they pay for t he product. Thus where MU
P=MCP (Sloman and Wride, 2007)
Advertising is the mass publicity of a product. It involves creating awareness of a product’s uses and benefits to
others. Doing this makes a product available to tho se in need of them and this satisfies the needs of the advertiser;
increasing sales.
According to Cohen, advertising is a business a ctivity that employs creative techniques to design
persuasive communication in mass media that promote ideas, goods, and services in a manner consistent with the
achievement of the advertiser’s objective, the deli very of consumer satisfaction and the development o f social
and economic welfare. (Cohen, 1988)
From Cohen’s definition, it can be found that adver tising satisfies 3 objectives; to increase sales of the firms, to
guarantee consumers a great deal of service and fin ally to ensure the social and economic welfare of society.
Advertising is seen in various ways. One encounters them mostly while watching television, reading mag azines
and newspapers, surfing the internet, and on the ra dio or even simply while walking down the street (S harma and
Sharma, 2009). Advertising has thus, a stimulating influence on the purchasing behaviour of the consum ers.
Advertising are most effective on products that hav e intrinsic qualities. These qualities are not known at the time
of purchase and it takes one to discover this upon using the product. Also, when there is a substantia l chance of
differentiating a product, it best suits to adverti se on that product. Again, when there is a strong e motional
purchasing motive such as to protect health or enha nce social position, it pays to advertise on such a product.
These conditions make the demand for the product mo re inelastic. The more emotions consumer attach to a
product, they more they tend to be insensitive to i ts price. This is of importance to firms as they can earn high
sales in pricing their products (Borden, 1942).
Advertising on food, clothing, durables and househo ld items tend not to yield higher sales. Consumers are not
affected much by the publicity on such items as the y consume such products on a daily basis. The highe r the
consumption of a product, the less effective is adv ertising on them. Advertising thus tend to have a less marginal
effect on such items (P. Doyle, Nov., 1968)
Advertising has a long term dynamic effect on consu mers’ purchase and sales of producers. A firm’s reason for

New Media and Mass Communication
ISSN 2224-3267 (Paper) ISSN 2224-3275 (Online)
Vol.27, 2014
advertising is to create awareness of a product. Th is has effect on current and future sales of firms as consumers
tend to respond to the advertisement in the long ru n. This dynamic effect of advertising explains that firms
usually advertise a product the most at the entry. (Sharma and Sharma, 2009)
Producers often advertise their product with the in tention of increasing their sales which allows the firms to gain
economies of scale and keep prices down. It also ma kes their products well known on the market. Also,
advertising is necessary when introducing new produ cts on the market. Without it, firms would find it
difficult to break into market in which ther e are established brands.(Sloman and Wride, 2007)
Advertising increases output, but increased output in turn increases production cost and this must be taken into
consideration when comparing the cost and benefit o f extra money of advertisement. The correct decision is to
increase advertising until the marginal revenu e from an additional money from advertisement, is just equal to
the full marginal cost of that advertisement. Tha t full marginal cost is the sum of the money spent directly on
the advertisement and the marginal production cost that results from the increased sales that advertisement brings
about. Thus the firm should advertise where MR
A=MCA. (Pindyck and Rubinfield, 1995)
Indian consumer market is one of the fastest growin g markets in the world with a very high increase in the
demand for luxury goods and personal care products. According to reports by Beauty Mart, the personal care
products specifically, the beauty industry in India , is growing at a rate twice that of the US and Eur ope. The
cosmetics market alone is growing about 15% to 20% annually, making it the right place for investors to channel
their resources. The cosmetic products market have seen a 60% growth over the past five years. (Beauty Mart,
The quest of this research was to find if this mass ive growth in the cosmetic market is as a results o f the
advertisement made on the cosmetic products or othe r factors.
As stated previously, advertising affect products t hat are believed to have an intrinsic quality that is not known at
the time of purchase. One of such products is cosme tics. It isfor this reason that we have chosen this produ ct as a
case study.
1.1 Statement of the problem
Advertising is essentially to fulfil the traditiona l desire of firms to reach the ever increasing popu lation so that
their products may receive optimum exposure. The ro le of advertisement; to increase sales revenue and profits
of the local firms and increase the demand for g oods, has been falling apart. (Sundarsan, 2007). Most
increase in product sales, especially, cosmetic pro ducts have been attributed to other factors like taste; long term
use of a product and users unwillingness to switch products. This has raised numerous questions as to why
cosmetic firms still do advertise their products.
Advertising has been a subject for debate either on one pretext or another for decades at the beginning of the
19th century. People showed little interest but it later became a fertile topic for research at the turn of the 19th
century. (Sharma and Sharma, 2009).
This study therefore seeks to find out the role adv ertising play in the consumer buying behaviour of c osmetic
products with emphasis to its users in and around N agarabhavi, Bangalore.
We are considering cosmetic product because we beli eve it satisfies the conditions of commodities on which it is
effective to advertise. There are a lot of cosmetic products which are differentiated but serve the sa me purpose.
Again these products are believed to have intrinsic qualities which can only be known after it has bee n used and
lastly, some consumers attach strong emotions to th e end products of these good and use it to improve their
social status.
1.2 Objectives
The general objective of the study was to f ind out if there is any effect of advertising on consumer buying
behaviour of cosmetic products in Bangalore. In our quest to achieve the general objective , the following specific objectives were set and formulated
to guide in data collection and analysis: i. To know the extent to which purchases of consumers are based on advertisement.
ii. To find the age and social group that is influenced by advertised cosmetic products.
iii. To find out the motives and reasons of consumers fo r demanding advertised cosmetic products.
iv. To know the other factors influencing consumer purc hase besides advertisements
The study continued with review of literature on ad vertising and the consumer buying behaviour. It then
followed with the methodology employed in the study . The findings and results were then presented which was
followed by conclusion and recommendations for cosm etic firms.

2.0 Literature Review
In reviewing previous works on the subject matter, so many views cropped up with others adding new
knowledge to the subject.
2.1 Issue of Advertising in Economics: The Overview
Advertising has been a subject discussed over centu ries ago, but prior to the 20
th Century, this subject was not as

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ISSN 2224-3267 (Paper) ISSN 2224-3275 (Online)
Vol.27, 2014
important as it seems now. The reason been that, in the 19th century, economist were busy trying to develop the
theory of perfect competitive markets, this theory assumed that, there was perfect information in the market and
that, consumers had fixed preference for their prod ucts which were homogenous in nature. It was then t hought of
as a waste of resource and an increase in cost of p roduction for one to advertise on products because consumers
were not in any way going to respond to that. (Bagw ell, 2001)
Also, there was no large scale production until the late 19
th century when numerous inventions cropped up. The
advancement in transportation and technology, made producers rethink their decision to improve their capacity
and thus, ensure publicity of their products. (Bagw ell, 2011)
After these happenings, advertising then became an important area for economist to research into. An early
reflection was given by Alfred Marshall (1890, 1919 ). In his works, “Principles of Economics” and “Industry
and Trade”. He marks out two roles played by advert ising. To him, advertising might be useful in providing
information to consumers which will help them satis fy their wants. He termed this as a constructive role played
by advertising. The second role he calls a combativ e role played by advertising may provide less information to
consumers leading them to shift among products. Mar shall gave an insight to the role of advertising but less can
be said of its fusion to microeconomics. (Bagwell, 2011)
Chamberlin in his work “The Theory of Monopolistic Competition” came up wit h new ways of looking at
advertising. He modelled the expenditure of a firm as a “selling cost” that expands a firm’s demand fo r a
differentiated product. In his work, he describes a market structure in which there are many firms pro ducing and
selling similar but not identical products. In this market, Chamberlin believes that advertising may p rovide
consumers with information about their wants but al so adds that, it can be persuasive and alter one’s demand for
another. Advertising when informative makes consum ers responsive to price changes and thus increases the
demand elasticity for the product but a persuasive advert will create brand loyalty making the demand for a good
inelastic(Bagwell, 2011).
Scale economies play a central role in Chamberlin’s work and he believes that, such economies may exis t in
production and advertising as well. Chamberlin then concluded that, the effects of adve rtising cannot be determined by theory alone, thus where a
firm’s demand curve is tangential to its U-shaped a verage cost of production and selling, but by also considering
the extent to which advertising is whether informat ive or persuasive and also whether scale economies exist.
(Bagwell, 2011)
After this insight by Chamberlin, there came into e xistence three views of advertising; persuasive, informative
and complementary.
The persuasive view developed by Robinson and later advanced by Braithwaite (1928) and Kaldor (1950), and
empirically supported by Bain (1956) and Comanor an d Wilson (1967) holds that, advertising affects one’s
demand and it is capable of ensuring brand loyalty. This view adds that, advertising makes demand for a product
inelastic and thus ensures increase in the price of the product and this effect might lessen as a resu lt of scale
economies. The view also adds that, consumers are u nwilling to try new products especially those of unknown
quality and this may deter entry of new producers. These scholars agree that, this view of advertising will only
work in the presence of scale economies in producti on.
The informative view of advertising, propagated by Ozga (1960) and Stigler (1961) holds that, advertising serve
to inform consumers about a product. They add that, advertising increases the demand elasticity for a product
and this happens because, it is believe by these sc holars that, as information of a product is given, it is assumed
the product is of high quality and this can even in crease the demand for products which is of low qual ity in
There is the complementary view of advertising whic h is developed by Stigler and Becker (1977) and thoroughly
defended by Stigler and Murphy (1989). This view be lieves that, advertising influences consumers by attaching a
“complementary influence in the consumer’s utility function” (Bagwell 2001). It might be that, a consumer
would like to attain some status in society and usi ng a certain product is capable of achieving this. What this
view means is that, the consumer, in his quest to a chieve this social status will be influenced by this advertising.
These views make us understand the different phases through which advertising has gone and we now know the
areas through which advertising works perfectly.
2.2 Advertising and Consumer Behaviour
A firm’s primary mission is to reach prospective cu stomers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying
behaviour. They spend a lot of money to keep indiv iduals (markets) interested in their products. To succeed,
they need to understand what makes potential custom ers behave the way they do. The firm’s goal is to get
enough relevant market data to develop accurate pro files of buyers to find the common group for
communications. This involves the study of consumer behaviour (Arens, 1996).
Proctor et al. (1982) noted that the principal aim of consumer behaviour analysis is to explain why co nsumers act
in particular way under certain circumstances. The study tries to determine the factors that influence consumer
behaviour, especially the economic, social and psyc hological aspects which can indicate the most favou red

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marketing mix that management should select.
Consumer behaviour analysis helps to determine the direction that a consumer’s behaviour is likely to take and
to give preferred trends in product developme nt, attributes of the alternative communication method etc.
Consumer behaviour analysis views the consumer as another factor of production, a factor that producers
cannot control and this factor interprets the pro duct or service not only in physical terms, but als o according to
their social and psychological makeup.
Incorporation of this knowledge in any firm’s decis ion will ensure a greater satisfaction of the firm’s objective.
Most views have cropped up as to maintaining a sust ained profit and it is when firms adopt to the new order of
making consumers a part of their daily decision, ot her than just selling products to them, will firms achieve this
target. Firms in achieving this state have a greate r gain in advertising their products.
2.3 The Indian Buying Behaviour
The Indian consumer buying behaviour has seen treme ndous growth over the past years. This can be attributed to
the high growth in the middle class in the country. This increase in the middle class has resulted in increased
demand for luxury and personal care products. Many foreign firms and entrepreneurs have noted the increase in
the demand for goods and have ensured increasing su pply of these goods to consumers. A lot of foreign
companies moved into the Indian market after the li beralisation of trade and there have been massive increase in
job opportunities and income resulting in high dema nd for goods and services.
The rise of companies after trade and liberalisatio n in the 1990s, saw most cosmetic firms enter India with local
ones gaining grounds from partnerships. Consumers h ave since then increase their demand for products of these
cosmetic firms. It is in this steady growth that th e Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry in I ndia,
ASSOCHAM (2013) estimated the Indian cosmetic marke t to be $50 billion. The high demand in cosmetic
products has been a great deal for firms and the In dian market has also benefitted from the products p rovided by
these firms.
ASSOCHAM has also found out that, there is increase in the buying behaviour among the youth in India
especially with regard to personal care products. T hey attributed the increase in the female spending on cosmetic
products to an increase in female employability and females being bread winners in their families. They also
found out that, men on average spend more on cosmet ic products than women, with the men spending averagely
about Rs.1000 – Rs.5000 on cosmetic products monthl y. This, they attributed to men’s demand for decent hair
care, deodorants and razor blades. The high increas e in the spending on cosmetic products is as a result of the
youth in India being conscious of their bodies and looking for products to enhance their physical appe arance.
With an increase in the level of literacy and the i nfluence of the media, there has been a greater inf luence on the
spending of males in particular (ASSOCHAM, 2013)
This high growth in demand for cosmetic products ma kes it worthwhile researching this area to know the
motives behind consumers purchase and factors assoc iated with their purchase.
2.4 Empirical Review
Finding the relationship between advertising and bu ying behaviour empirically, Ekelund and Gramm (1969 ) in
studying “A Reconsideration of Advertising Expendit ures, Aggregate Demand and Stabilization” concluded that,
there is no positive relationship between advertisi ng and aggregate consumption.
Taylor and Weiserbs (1972) in studying the relation ship between advertising expenditure and aggregate
consumption using Houtakker-Taylor model revealed t hat, there is a simultaneous relationship between
advertising and consumption but not a unidirectiona l. Thus, advertising and consumption seem to work o n each
Dr. Abey P. Philip (2007) in his study of “The Rela tionship between Advertising and Consumption in Ind ia: An
Analysis of Causality” made use of unit root test, cointegration and error correction model and found out that,
fluctuations in advertising expenditure positively impacts consumption expenditure.
Sharma and Sharma (2009), using Fixed Effect Model of Panel Data Analysis for 134 companies, found in their
study that, besides advertising, factors like compa ny’s brand, quality of the product and company’s re putation
affect the sales of a company.
Dr. Naveen Kumar et al. (2011), using mean and stan dard deviation, in their study of advertising and consumer
buying behaviour with special reference to Nestle L imited, India found that, advertising and sales promotion
together with the image of a company influence the consumer buying decision. They added that, the qual ity and
price of a product also influences a consumer’s pur chase of a good.
Banerjee et al (2012) found evidence of cointegrati on between marketing communication and sales i n the
personal care industry in India. Bin Junaid A. et al (2013) found in their study of female buying behaviour of cosmetic products in New Delhi
and NCR that, as income of females increase, their purchase of cosmetic products also increase. They also,
added that, this increase in expenses on cosmetic p roduct is made possible by the advertisement made o n them.
ASSOCHAM (2013) in a survey of 2000 youth in major cities in India found that, there is a high increase in the
consumption of cosmetic goods among the youth. They added that, men on average spend more on cosmetic

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Vol.27, 2014
products than their female counterparts and attribu ted this increase to the awareness created on the products.
2.5 Research Gap
From literatures reviewed, we can say that, indeed advertising has a positive effect on the purchase of consumers
and it positively influences the sales of companies .
We found that most work done in the subject, found out the effects of advertising on companies’ sales using
various econometric tools. Little can be said of wo rk done on the consumers’ side using econometric an alysis.
Also, most reviewed literature made use of descript ive statistics thus, measures of central tendency and
dispersion which didn’t give any empirical evidence as to how much effects advertising has on consumer buying
behaviour. It is therefore a necessity to have this research done.

3.0 Methodology
The study was to find the effects of advertising on consumer buying behaviour of young men and women w ith a
special case of users of cosmetic products in and a round Nagarabhavi, Bangalore.
The methodology used to help us with the research, shows how the research was carried out taking into
consideration available resources and limitations.
3.1 Study Area
The study area for the research was Bangalore, whic h is the capital city of Karnataka State. It is in the Southern
part of India. Most respondents were people in and around Nagarabhavi, which is a suburb of Bangalore.
3.2 Sample Size
The sample size for the study was 100youth responde nts who reside in and around Nagarabhavi, Bangalore.
From previous studies it is revealed that most cons umers of cosmetic products are young men and women in
India (ASSOCHAM, 2013) and based on this revelation , we selected this group to have our objective achieved.
3.3 Sampling Technique
The sample techniques selected in administering the questionnaire were purposive sampling, and snowbal l
sampling. Purposive sampling was used considering m ostly the youth in the area as found in previous studies,
the snowball sampling was used to get easy access t o cosmetic product users and ensured faster gathering of
This sample was chosen bearing in mind the constrai nts and the limited resources. Using the snowball sampling
technique, an online questionnaire, created with Go ogle Forms was administered to some people in and a round
Nagarabhavi. This was to get responses from mostly females. It was difficult for males and especially a foreigner
to have females respond to the questionnaire.
3.4 Source and Type of Data
The sources of data were primary data, collected fr om respondents in the study area, observations and interviews
conducted with respondents and sales managers.
There were unstructured interview with sale manager s of cosmetic products at 2 different malls in and around
Nagarabhavi, Bangalore. We found out from the manag ers, how consumers reacted to goods advertised, factors
they considered before making purchase and the reas ons behind their purchase of these goods.
Sales managers also gave us information on the bran ds most patronised by consumers of cosmetic product s.
They also gave us the proportion of brands that mak e up most of their monthly sales.
Observations of the consumers were made at these tw o Malls as they purchased cosmetic products. We
interacted with them when they were done filling th e questionnaire.
The information collected through the issued questi onnaire, interviews and observation gave us a clear
understanding of the buying behaviour of the youth on cosmetic products and which factors they conside red in
their purchase.
3.5 Research instrument
Questionnaire was the main device used in the colle ction of data. Primary data were used. Primary data are the
pieces of information elicited from respondents wh ich were directly related to the research topic.
The questionnaires contained structured questions w ith the main aim of eliciting information on the effects of
advertising on consumer’s purchase. The questionnai re was structured with closed ended questions and open
ended questions. The closed ended questions made it easier to compare the views of the respondents. It also
provided standardized responses and made coding eas y. The open ended questions gave the respondents mo re
room to express their views and opinions, answer qu estions in their own way and give suggestions where
necessary. It also gave us different views from the respondents and quantitative information on the mo nthly
income or pocket money and expenses made on cosmeti cs. Using the data from the consumers assisted us to
process the information needed and to test the info rmation empirically.
The questionnaires were made up of list of qu estions relating to the objectives of the study. The
questionnaire was made up of two sections; demograp hic data and those relating to the study. Each of these
sections focused on specific issues that relate to the research question. The questionnaires were admi nistered
with greater assurance of confidentiality, anonymit y and convenience.

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3.6 Data Collating/Processing
The collected data was then collated and analysed u sing SPSS and STATA. These are statistical package tools
used for presenting and analysing data. Using SPSS, we found the descriptive statistics of the data and presented
them in graphs. We cross tabulated some variables l ike age and sex, advertising effect and sex among others.
This was to find out which group had advertising in fluencing their purchase of cosmetic products.
Using STATA, we ran a regression of expenses on cos metic products on income of consumers, advertising, price,
brand, and recommendation influence on consumers. Using qualitative data made it easier to know and o bserve the behaviour of consumers of cosmetic produ cts. To
achieve our objectives, this data helped us know wh ich among the social groups are influenced most by
advertising in their purchase of cosmetic products and also to what extent their purchases are affected by adverts
as well. Also, the data gave us most of the qualiti es consumers look out for before making purchases l ike the
price, income and others recommendation.
3.7 Regression Model
The regression model that was ran using STATA was
1 + 2ln_INCOME+ 3Da+ 4Db + 5Dp+ 6Dr + ?
Where EXP = Expenses on cosmetic products and which is the d ependent variable.
ln_INCOME is the log of income of consumers, which is the co variate of the model
Da is the dummy for those influenced by advertising.
Da=1 , when respondents are influenced by advertising, Da=0, if otherwise
Db is the dummy for those considering the brand of co smetic products.
Db=1 when one considers brand of cosmetics products, Db=0, if otherwise
Dp is the dummy for those considering the price of a cosmetic product.
Dp=1 when one considers price, Dp=0, if otherwise.
Dr is the dummy for those influenced by others recomm endation in their purchase.
Dr=1 , when one considers others’ recommendation, Dr=0, if otherwise.

1 is the intercept or benchmark for those who aren’t influenced by advertising, price, brand and
recommendation from others in their purchase.

2 is the slope coefficient of income showing the abs olute change in income on expenses made.

3, 4, 5, 6 are the differential intercept coefficients of t hose influenced by advertising, brand, price
and other’s recommendation.
? is the error term factoring other factors that affe cts the purchase of cosmetic products but are not
considered in the model
The log of income or pocket money was used to corre ct any biasness in the data and make it easier to explain
and understand.
It would have been appropriate to estimate the pric e elasticity for cosmetic products, however it was not possible
to include the actual prices in the model since inf ormation on that was not provided for in the questi onnaire
hence introducing a dummy for how price influences customers’ purchase was the best option. This was because,
consumers purchase different products even within t he same brand, hence using the prices of different products
would be difficult for the study.
The dummies were used to know how consumers rate th ese factors before making a purchase. Since the study is
on consumers’ behaviour in purchasing cosmetic good s, factoring these qualitative variables was essential.
3.8 Hypothesis testing
The hypotheses of the regression model were then te sted to know empirically, the effects of advertising on
consumer purchase of cosmetic products. Other varia bles in the model were also tested. The null and alternate
hypotheses formed were; H
o: advertising has no influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic p roducts
1: advertising has influence on the consumer’s purcha se of cosmetic products
o: income of consumers has no influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic p roducts.
1: income of consumers has influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic products.
o: price of a product has no influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic p roducts
1: price of a product has influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic products
o: Others’ recommendation has no influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic p roducts
1: other’s recommendation has influence on the consum er’s purchase of cosmetic products
o: Cosmetic brand has no influence on the consumer’s purchase of cosmetic p roducts
1: Cosmetic brand has influence on the consumer’s purc hase of cosmetic products

4.0 Data Findings and Analysis
After collating the questionnaires administered and the observation and interview conducted, the following were
the findings.

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Vol.27, 2014
4.1 Observation and Interview.
Table1.0 Consumers Sales Managers Total
Men Women
Total Number of
Observation 10 15 – 25
Total no of Interviews
conducted 8 10 2 20
From 25 observations on consumers, we came to under
stand that, men and women go in for cosmetic products
for various reasons and are influenced by advertisi ng through various means.
We observed and interacted with 10 females who use cosmetic products and they stated that their reason for
using them were to be confident and elegant. Accord ing to them, the mere thought of other’s recognising their
physical looks boost their morale and makes them gi ve their best. They added that, they are loyal to a brand of
cosmetic product they have been introduced to it by their family, particularly their mothers and do not consider
changing those brands for any other, irrespective o f the adverts made on those products. Some are pric e sensitive
to cosmetic products and do not consider any brand or adverts made on them that much. Thus, they purch ase the
products that is within their budget. Others also a dded that, they depended on the recommendation from others.
They believed that, the words from their friends ab out a product really is worth purchasing.
Advertisements on cosmetic products, according to t hese women, inform them on the essence of using the
product and create awareness of the cosmetic produc ts but their purchase of these products is highly influenced
by other factors like the quality, brand, others re commendation and price.
Interaction with 2 other females after they are don e filling the questionnaire revealed that, they were emotionally
attached to the Oriflame brand. Their reason was th at, the adverts on the products claimed, the final products are
not tested on animals, and to these women, this app eals to them making them patronise the product.
8 men we interacted with were mostly concern about how they wanted to be seen among their peers. Most of
these who were single wanted to appear presentable. Most men like to go with a brand they are familiar with,
depending mostly on recommendations from their frie nds even when they have seen an advert of the product on
television and the internet. Some men, like the wom en, were price sensitive; they considered the price at times
when purchasing a product.
Some respondents also added that, they admire celeb rities promoting cosmetic products. They believe, the mere
fact that a ‘Superstar’ was using the product means , it is of value and worth purchasing. This in a way influences
their purchase of the cosmetic products. These cele brities create a certain level of brand loyalty for consumers
and some are unwilling to switch brands irrespectiv e of the adverts they see of other products.
From our interaction with two (2) sales managers of cosmetic products at Gopalan Arcade and Garuda Mal l all
in Bangalore, they revealed that, most customers co me with a particular product brand in mind. They pu rchase
those products and do not consider any other. Other s also come describing an advert they saw on television.
These adverts are mostly of celebrities associating with a brand. Most customers however, were price s ensitive
and compared prices to know which product is cheape r and of good quality. Some of these customers, the
managers added, rely sometimes on the recommendatio n of sales attendants and the managers themselves.
The managers also revealed that, most female costum ers patronise brands like Lakmé from Hindustan Unilever
Limited, Revlon and Nivea. They added that, these b rands make up most of their sales every month. Acco rding
to them, they have promotional sales in arrival of new products on the market and the reception they g et is
always overwhelming.
With the men, the managers revealed that, they patr onise products like Garnier and L’Oreal. Some men,
according to the managers, use unisex products from Lakmé as well.
Attempts made to contact the Head of Sales Departme nt at Hindustan Unilever Limited were unsuccessful after
numerous emails sent and calls made. This was to fi nd out how the company monitor its advertisement on
cosmetic products and how they evaluate the impact of advertisement made on their cosmetic products.
4.2 Findings from Questionnaire
The 100 questionnaires were administered and variou s responses were gathered and processed.
4.2.1 Income and expenditure distribution of respon dents
From the data gathered, males made up 50% with fema les taking the other 50%. Men spent on average, 4.26% of
their monthly pocket money on cosmetic products, wh ile the females spend 4.78%.
One remarkable thing noticed in the table is that, the standard deviations of income is more than the mean value.
This is as a result of the high outliers in the inc ome with the minimum being Rs. 1,000 and highest be ing Rs.
100,000.It can also be seen that, most respondents recorded Rs. 5,000 as their monthly pocket money. T his can
be attributed to most of the respondents being stud ents and having below the mean value as pocket mone y.

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Table II. Descriptive Statistics Men Women Total
Income Expenses Income Expenses Income Expenses
Total no. obs 50 50 50 50 100 100
Mean(Rs.) 15596 665 14682 702 15139 683.5
Median(Rs.) 10500 500 5000 500 10000 500
Mode (Rs.) 10000 1000 5000 500 5000 500
Standard Dev. 16844.5 482.7906 17812.84 494.3518 17253.77 486.4846
Minimum(Rs.) 1500 100 1000 100 1000 100
Maximum(Rs.) 100000 2000 80000 2000 100000 2000
4.2.2 Advertising influence on cosmetic products
Out of 39% preferences for Hindustan Unilever produ
cts, 29% of the respondents are influenced by advertising
when making purchase.15% out of 20% of users of the Garnier brand are influenced by advertising in their
purchase. Nivea has 11% out of 17% of users, being influenced by advertising. In all, 70% of the responses have
advertising influencing their purchase of cosmetic products. This percentage is highly remarkable as firms get
returns for investment made in publicising their pr oducts. Surprisingly, the same number of men and wo men are
influenced by advertising on cosmetic products. Fro m the study, 35% of males and 35% of females have
advertising influencing their purchase of cosmetic product, representing 70% of total sample surveyed.
Advertising influence reach a lot of people through different media. Out of the 70% of respondents inf luenced by
advertising, 48% encounter advertising messages on television,14% from the internet and 8% through the print
media. Effective use of these media will ensure inc rease in the sales revenue of firms.
When we consider the age group of the respondents, advertising has a stronger influence on the purchase of the
working group; those within the range of 25-35 year s. Thus, 50% of respondents who are influenced by
advertising fall in this group, with 48.6% from the age range 15-25 years. This shows that, most peopl e in the
working group are responsible for most purchase of cosmetic products. But it should also be noted that, those
within the age range 15-25 years should also be fac tored in the manufacturing of cosmetic products and
advertising on them.
As to whether the respondents were satisfied using the product they purchased or not, 61% out of the 7 0% of
those influenced by advertising on a cosmetic produ cts asserted that, they were satisfied with them with the
remaining 9% not satisfied using the product. Most of those who were satisfied after using the product added that,
their expectations on the products were met and the advertising did really inform them about the product. The
remaining 9% who were not satisfied after purchasin g the product via the adverts on them added that, the
advertisement exaggerated and the products did not meet their expectations as was informed via the adverts. This
affirms Marshall and Chamberlin’s view on the roles of advertising as being constructive and combative.
4.2.3 Regression Output
Several regression models were ran to know the best functional form in relation to our study. The most
appropriate functional form we got was the lin-log model, with the expenses on cosmetic product being the
dependent variable and the log of income or pocket money together with other qualitative variables being the
independent variables. In estimating this, the foll owing regression was ran using STATA.
1 + 2ln_INCOME+ 3Da+ 4Db + 5Dp+ 6Dr + ?
After running the regression, upon checks, we realised th at, there existed unequal variance thereby resulting in
the insignificance of income.
The Cook-Weisberg test for heteroskedasticity was c onducted and it revealed that, the chi-square test for the
residuals was 8.24 with a p-value of 0.0041, which means rejecting the null Hypothesis, thus, variance is
constant. To correct this error so as to make the m odel
BLUE, we ran a robust regression and the outcome sh owed that, the test statistic for income was now significant
at 5%.

New Media and Mass Communication
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Vol.27, 2014
Output 4.1

Output 4.2
Test of heteroskedasticity

Output 4.3

Fitting the regression showed that, a consumer’s in come was positively related to the expenses made on cosmetic
products. The slope coefficient of income means tha t, an increase in income by 1% will increase the expenses on
cosmetic products by Rs. 0.77(
2*0.01). This shows that a consumer will increase his or her expenses on
cosmetic products by Rs. 0.5(

) for a Rs. 100 increase in income. This shows a rela tively
smaller increase in expenses on cosmetic products f or a larger increase in income. Thus a 1% change in income
will increase expenditure on cosmetic products by 0 .11%. Notwithstanding this, the slope coefficient of income
was statistically significant at 5% and it therefor e plays an important role when one considers spendi ng on
cosmetic products.

_cons -592.2451 444.6135 -1.33 0.186 -1475.03 6 290.5453
224.1852 111.7674 2.01 0.048 2.26853
7 446.1019
205.5358 137.7003 1.49 0.139 -67.8715
1 478.943
-118.1303 217.0312 -0.54 0.588 -549.050
9 312.7904
409.7348 117.7648 3.48 0.001 175.909
9 643.5596
77.12331 41.99456 1.84 0.069 -6.25787
7 160.5045

Expense Coef. Std. Err. t P;|t| 95% Co
nf. Interval

Total 23430275 99 236669.444 Root MSE
= 445.49

Adj R-squared = 0.1614
18655458.6 94 198462.325 R-squared
= 0.2038
4774816.42 5 954963.285 Prob ; F
= 0.0006

F( 5, 94) = 4.81
SS df MS Number of
obs = 100
. reg Expense lnincome Da Db Dp Dr
Prob ; chi2 = 0.0041
chi2(1) = 8.24
Variables: resid
Ho: Constant variance
Breusch-Pagan / Cook-Weisberg test for heteroskedas

. hettest resid

_cons -592.2451 373.8965 -1.58 0.117 -1334.625 150.1351
224.1852 103.7664 2.16 0.033 18.1546
6 430.2158
-118.1303 111.9414 -1.06 0.294 -340.392
6 104.1321
205.5358 114.3759 1.80 0.076 -21.560
3 432.6318
409.7348 82.48144 4.97 0.000 245.965
9 573.5036
77.12331 38.35454 2.01 0.047 .969478
6 153.2771

Expense Coef. Std. Err. t P;|t| 95% Co
nf. Interval


Root MSE = 445.49

R-squared = 0.2038

Prob ; F = 0.0000

F( 5, 94) = 7.43
Linear regression
Number of obs = 100

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Advertising influence has a positive effect on expe nses made on cosmetic products. One who is influenc ed by
advertising will spend on average, Rs. 409.73 more on cosmetic products than those not influenced by it. This
shows a greater influence of advertising on the pur chase of cosmetic products as indicated by 70% of t he
respondents who purchase cosmetic products. The coe fficient of advertising influence is statistically significant
at 5% indicating the important role advertising pla ys on the purchase of cosmetic products.
The recommendation from others also positively infl uence the expenses on cosmetic products. One who fo llows
the advice of others spend Rs.224.19 more than thos e who do not. Statistically, this coefficient is significant at
5% and shows that, what other people say of a produ ct positively influences the expenditure made on it.
The influence of price has positive effect on how m uch is spent on cosmetic products. This shows that, someone
who is cautious of price differences will spend Rs. 205.04 on cosmetic products. This coefficient is not
statistically significant at 5% indicating that, th ere is no difference between those who factor price when
purchasing a cosmetic product and those who don’t. It can be added that, consumers do not consider the price of
cosmetic products that much if it will serve the pu rpose they want it to from information gathered thr ough
advertising and from others view.
Brand choice interestingly, is negatively related t o the amount spent on cosmetic products. Those who considers
brand spend Rs. 118.13 less. The coefficient of thi s variable is statistically insignificant at 5% indicating that,
there is no difference on how much is spent on cosm etic products between those who consider a brand of a
cosmetic product and those who don’t.
All these variables, as shown, have a role to play in the purchase of cosmetic products. They are 20% responsible
for the variations in the amount of money spent on them and with an F value of 7.43, all the slope coefficients
are statistically significant at 5%. This indicates that, though one might not consider the brand of a product as
well as how much is charged on the product, one wil l be influenced by them together with the adverts seen on
them and the advice from others on a product. It ca n be added that, one will spend on a product if others tell him
or her of its quality. This can be seen from our su rvey that, 99% of the respondents go out for the be st products
that address their needs and wouldn’t worry about t he brand or the high cost on the product.
This last model is chosen because it explained the problem better. The variation in income was reduced by taking
its natural log and this made the income or pocket money of the respondents statistically significant. Also, most
of the variables considered in the regression are s ignificant with a higher R

5.0 Recommendations and Conclusion
It can be seen from the study that, on average, adv ertising does have influence on the purchase of cos metic
products and it is a must for cosmetic firms to con tinue advertising on their products if they require maximum
sales. Also, we found out that, though advertising does influence the purchase of consumers, other fac tors like
income and others’ recommendation do play a role in one’s purchase.
In our study, we had wanted to estimate the effect of advertising on firms’ sales as well, but no access to data
was the reason why this was not achieved.
Again, we were constraint by time and the resources at our disposal. We will suggest to others to increase the
sample size and the study area to know the effect o f advertising on consumers’ buying behaviour.
From the study, the following recommendations were suggested.
i.) Advertising works and affects consumers’ purchase i n the long run. It is required of firms to increase
their advertising budget and make advertising livel y for consumers to associate with. This will
definitely have an impact on the sales of cosmetic firms. Advertising in the long run tend to make
demand for cosmetic goods inelastic and this accord ing to Robinson (1933) and Chamberlin (1933)
will persuade consumers to be attached to a particu lar brand.
ii.) The complementary view of advertising was found not to be so strong for cosmetic products. The
respondents stated that, the prestige attached to a brand was not all they look out for when
purchasing a product. With as high as 40% of respon dents stating this as a weak reason for
purchasing a product, it falls on cosmetic firms to concentrate on the quality which 99% of the
respondents believe they look out for in a product.
iii.) With about 15% to 20% growth in the demand for cosm etic products annually, it is required of firms to
pay attention to the required needs of consumers an d channel this into their advertising contents.
Making use of the most patronised media; television internet and prints, to increase their sales.
iv.) One thing also found in the study was that, consume rs like to factor in discounted prices when
purchasing cosmetic products. It is therefore requi red of firms to make their prices affordable for
Advertising satisfies the needs of the firm as well as the wishes of consumers. Its role can never be replaced by
any other means in this dynamic world of ours. It i s therefore a must for firms to strategize and know when and
where they should advertise to gain maximum returns . The consumers should be considered as a factor of
production, they need to be informed about products and until that is done, the products of firms will still be in

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ISSN 2224-3267 (Paper) ISSN 2224-3275 (Online)
Vol.27, 2014
stores with no demand for them.
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Frequency Table s
Sex of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Female 50 50.0 50.0 50.0
Male 50 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Age of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid 15-25 51 51.0 51.0 51.0
25-35 46 46.0 46.0 97.0
35-45 3 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Marital Status of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Single 69 69.0 69.0 69.0
Married 31 31.0 31.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Occupation of Respondents

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Student 50 50.0 50.0 50.0
Banking 6 6.0 6.0 56.0
Teaching 3 3.0 3.0 59.0
Marketing 10 10.0 10.0 69.0
IT and Computer 9 9.0 9.0 78.0
Other 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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Brand of Cosmetic Products

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid HUL 39 39.0 39.0 39.0
Emami 8 8.0 8.0 47.0
Revlon 3 3.0 3.0 50.0
L'Oreal 11 11.0 11.0 61.0
Nivea 17 17.0 17.0 78.0
Garnier 20 20.0 20.0 98.0
Other 2 2.0 2.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid No 30 30.0 30.0 30.0
Yes 70 70.0 70.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Medium of Encountering Advertising

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid None 30 30.0 30.0 30.0
T.V 48 48.0 48.0 78.0
Papers 8 8.0 8.0 86.0
Internet 14 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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Place of Purchase

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Malls 33 33.0 33.0 33.0
Internet 9 9.0 9.0 42.0
Supermarket 42 42.0 42.0 84.0
Pharmacy 13 13.0 13.0 97.0
Local Shop 3 3.0 3.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Purpose of Adverts

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Inform of Product 58 58.0 58.6 58.6
Create perception 19 19.0 19.2 77.8
Create Preference 11 11.0 11.1 88.9
Create awareness 11 11.0 11.1 100.0
Total 99 99.0 100.0
Missing System 1 1.0
Total 100 100.0

Advertising Influence

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 26 26.0 26.0 26.0
Moderate 55 55.0 55.0 81.0
Weak 19 19.0 19.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Brand of Product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid strong 63 63.0 63.0 63.0
Moderate 32 32.0 32.0 95.0
Weak 5 5.0 5.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 50 50.0 50.0 50.0
Moderate 38 38.0 38.0 88.0
Weak 12 12.0 12.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 26 26.0 26.0 26.0
Moderate 52 52.0 52.0 78.0
Weak 22 22.0 22.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Quality of Product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 71 71.0 71.0 71.0
Moderate 28 28.0 28.0 99.0
Weak 1 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Prestige attached to Product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 22 22.0 22.0 22.0
Moderate 38 38.0 38.0 60.0
Weak 40 40.0 40.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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Packaging of Product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 25 25.0 25.0 25.0
Moderate 43 43.0 43.0 68.0
Weak 32 32.0 32.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0


Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Strong 42 42.0 42.0 42.0
Moderate 44 44.0 44.0 86.0
Weak 14 14.0 14.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Attractive to the Opposite Sex

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 9 9.0 9.0 9.0
Moderate 42 42.0 42.0 51.0
Weak 49 49.0 49.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

Being Socially Acceptable

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strong 39 39.0 39.0 39.0
Moderate 41 41.0 41.0 80.0
Weak 20 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0

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Satisfied with the Product

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 0 11 11.0 11.0 11.0
Yes 89 89.0 89.0 100.0
Total 100 100.0 100.0
Cross Tabulations
Age, Sex and Brand Cross tabulation

Ad_Effect * Consumer’s Satisfaction of ProductCross tabulation
Total 0 Yes
Ad_Effect No Count 2 28 30
% within Ad_Effect 6.7% 93.3% 100.0%
% within Satisfied 18.2% 31.5% 30.0%
% of Total 2.0% 28.0% 30.0%
Yes Count 9 61 70
% within Ad_Effect 12.9% 87.1% 100.0%
% within Satisfied 81.8% 68.5% 70.0%
% of Total 9.0% 61.0% 70.0%
Total Count 11 89 100
% within Ad_Effect 11.0% 89.0% 100.0%
% within Satisfied 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 11.0% 89.0% 100.0%

Sex Age

Male Female Total 15-25
years 25-35
years 35-45
years Total
Surveyed 50 50 100 51 46 3
11% 28% 39% 22% 17% 39%
Emami 7% 1% 8% 0% 8% 8%
Revlon 1% 2% 3% 1% 2% 3%
L’Oreal 3% 8% 11% 8% 2% 1% 11%
Nivea 11% 6% 17% 8% 9% 17%
Garnier 16% 4% 20% 11% 7% 2% 20%
Oriflame 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 2%

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Ad_Effect * Brand_of_CosCrosstabulation
Brand_of_Cos Total
HUL Emami Revlon L'Oreal Nivea Garnier Other
Ad_Effect No Count 10 2 1 5 6 5 1 30
% within
Ad_Effect 33.3% 6.7% 3.3% 16.7% 20.0% 16.7% 3.3% 100.0%
% within
Brand_of_Cos 25.6% 25.0% 33.3% 45.5% 35.3% 25.0% 50.0% 30.0%
% of Total 10.0% 2.0% 1.0% 5.0% 6.0% 5.0% 1.0% 30.0%
Yes Count 29 6 2 6 11 15 1 70
% within
Ad_Effect 41.4% 8.6% 2.9% 8.6% 15.7% 21.4% 1.4% 100.0%
% within
Brand_of_Cos 74.4% 75.0% 66.7% 54.5% 64.7% 75.0% 50.0% 70.0%
% of Total 29.0% 6.0% 2.0% 6.0% 11.0% 15.0% 1.0% 70.0%
Total Count 39 8 3 11 17 20 2 100
% within
Ad_Effect 39.0% 8.0% 3.0% 11.0% 17.0% 20.0% 2.0% 100.0%
% within
Brand_of_Cos 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 39.0% 8.0% 3.0% 11.0% 17.0% 20.0% 2.0% 100.0%

Ad_Effect * Sex Crosstabulation
Total Female Male
Ad_Effect No Count 15 15 30
% within Ad_Effect 50.0% 50.0% 100.0%
% within Sex 30.0% 30.0% 30.0%
% of Total 15.0% 15.0% 30.0%
Yes Count 35 35 70
% within Ad_Effect 50.0% 50.0% 100.0%
% within Sex 70.0% 70.0% 70.0%
% of Total 35.0% 35.0% 70.0%
Total Count 50 50 100
% within Ad_Effect 50.0% 50.0% 100.0%
% within Sex 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
% of Total 50.0% 50.0% 100.0%

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(t value) Independent Variables
(t value)

(t value) Da
(t value)
(t value)

value) Dr
Exp 306.0627
(1.38) 396.49
(3.37)* 0.13
7.26 0.00
Ln_Exp 4.5221 (7.19) .1267
(1.87) .7151
(3.84)* 0.16

9.62 0.00
Ln_Exp 4.5221
(7.95) .1267
(1.98)* .7151
(3.92)* 0.16 12.59 0.00
(0.42) .0036
(1.67) 410.45
(4.48)* -154.31
(-1.55) 213.84
(1.81) 251.33

0.19 7.40 0.00
(-1.58) 77.1233
(2.01)* 409.73
(4.97)* -118.13
(-1.06) 205.54
(1.80) 224.19

0.20 7.43 0.00
(-1.58) 77.1233
(2.01)* 409.73
(4.97)* -118.13
(-1.06) 205.54
(1.80) 224.19

0.20 7.43 0.00
(6.48)* 0.1081
(1.66) .7490
(3.97)* -0.3577
(-1.45) 0.4305
(1.77) .2617
(1.60) 0.22 6.18 0.00

Regression Models
Italicised indicates a robust regression, meant to correct heteroskedasticity
*indicates statistically significant values

This research is to find out the effects of adverti sing on buying behaviour of consumers of cosmetic p roducts.
All information provided would be confidential. Ple ase tick the box and write where appropriate.

SECTION A : Biographical details
1. Gender
Male Female
2. Age range
15-25 25- 35 35- 45 45- 55 55-a bove
3. Marital Status
Single Married
4. Occupation
Student Banking Teaching Mark eting
IT and Computer Other…………….
5. What is your monthly income/ Pocket money Rs ……. ………………

6. Which brand of cosmetics do you use among these?
Lakme (Hindustan Unilever Ltd) Emami Revlon
L’Oreal Nivea Garnier Other………………..
7. Does advertising influence your purchase of the cosmetic product above?
Yes No
8. If yes, which medium of advertising influences y our purchase of the above cosmetic product?
Television Print (Newspapers, Magazines, Broch ures) Internet (Online)

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Vol.27, 2014
9. Where do you most purchase the above cosmetic pr oduct brand?
Malls Internet(online) Supermarket Pharmacy
Local shops Other………………..
10.What purpose do adverts on the cosmetic product serve you?
Inform you of the features and benefits of the prod uct
Create the desired perceptions of the product
Create a preference for the product
Create awareness of a new product
11. How much do you spend on the cosmetic products monthly? Rs. …………………………..
12. Rankthefactors which most influence your purcha se ofthecosmetic products
Strong Influence
Influence Weak Influence
Recommendation from others

13. Why do you purchase the cosmetic products?
Strong Reason
Moderate Reason Weak Reason
To look beautiful
To be attracted to the opposite sex
To be socially acceptable


14. Are you satisfied using the product? Yes
No. If Yes/No, Why ……………………
Please add your comments.

Online survey rtZhS7WuIH9xngIBbLEcASo_g/viewform

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