Network Analysis in Epanet of Water Supply System at Sawale village in Maharashtra with an interpretation of Georeferencing – A GIS Approach Reshma Kamble1

Network Analysis in Epanet of Water Supply System at Sawale village in Maharashtra with an interpretation of Georeferencing – A GIS Approach
Reshma Kamble1, Karthik Nagarajan2, Raju Narwade3
1M.E. Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Pillai HOC College of Engineering and Technology, Rasayani, 410207, Raigad (Maharashtra), India
2,3Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Pillai HOC College of Engineering and Technology, Rasayani, 410207, Raigad (Maharashtra), India
[email protected], [email protected], 3 [email protected]

ABSTRACT: Water distribution systems constitute a vital part of the civil infrastructure. In order to fulfill the water demand of the continuously growing population, it is essential to provide the sufficient and uniform quantity of water through the designed network of pipes. The general highlights of the zone like data about the primary water source, the number of inhabitants in the zone, a request of water, necessity of the pumps, appropriation system, and water tanks are fundamental for the effective outline of water circulation framework. This work features the procedure did on the outline of water supply system for a zone named Sawale with the assistance of this data the plan of the Rural Water Supply Scheme for the region with the help of programming “EPANET”. The main objective of the research works is to study the existing water supply system of Sawale village, the source of the water and then planning water distribution system using GIS. This paper addresses the use of GIS for mapping and planning water distribution network. GIS-based instruments will be utilized for the digitization of town, water circulation system and hubs which are vital from the water conveyance perspective. Data generated in GIS such as topography, nodes, elevation, length of the pipe etc., can be used for designing the efficient and economical water distribution system as they can be readily imported as input files for the hydraulic simulation models. EPANET is hydraulic simulation software can be efficiently used for such purpose. This design of the water supply scheme for proper supply of water is effective to meet the daily requirement of water in this area.
Key Words: Water distribution systems, Geographic Information System, Epanet software, Design and Analysis
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
In order to fulfill the water demand of the constantly growing population, we need to provide the satisfactory and standardized quantity of water through the designed network of pipes is known as water supply. Water supply frameworks should likewise meet prerequisites for open, business, and modern exercises. In all cases, the water must satisfy both quality and amount prerequisites.Water distribution networks play an important role in modern societies being its appropriate operation directly related to the population’s well-being. In Sawale where there live a vast number of people, is very imperative in modern society to ensure the availability of potable water and to plan and design for a sustainable economic suitable pipe network system or water supply schemes. These days’ commercial computer software applications are available to represent the formation of the distribution system and pipe network where comprehensive information about the pipe like “Diameter, Length, Pipe material etc.” and devices like “Nodes, Valves etc.” are given. EPANET is such a PC based program, to the point that plays out a broadened period recreation of water powered and water quality conduct inside pressurized pipe systems. EPANET was developed by the Water Supply and Water Resources Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory. It is public province software that may be without restraint copied and circulated.A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.The capabilities essential for decision making readily available in a single organization make GIS a great tool for integrating into planning processes.
1.2 Need of Water Supply
Human life, as with all animal and plant life on the planet, is dependent on water. Not exclusively do we require water to develop our sustenance, produce our energy and run our ventures, however, we require it as a fundamental piece of our day by day lives – our bodies need to ingest water each day to keep working.”Basic needs of about 40 liters per person per day”. It includes the need for water to maintain a basic standard of personal and domestic cleanliness sufficient to maintain health.

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1.3 Water Demand
Water plays an essential role in the well-being of individuals, communities and is crucial for economic survivability. It is used for many purposes that include Bathing, Washing of clothes, Flushing, Washing the house, Cooking, industrial cool as shown in Table 1 Around 70.9% of the world’s surface is secured with water out of which 97% is available in seas as salt water. Only 3% of the water available on the earth is in the form of fresh water.

Table 1: Water Requirements for Domestic Purposes
Sr. No. Description Amount of Water In Litres Per Head
1 Bathing 15
2 Washing the utensils& house 7
3 Cooking 5
4 Drinking 3
5 Ablution 10
TOTAL 40

1.4 Steps in Designing Water Distribution Networks
There are four steps in Designing Water Distribution Networks are as follows:
1.4.1 Survey and preparation of the map
A counterfeited the segment of land lying between the wellspring of water supply and the appropriation region is reviewed to acquire the levels for repairing the arrangement of the rising principle. The conveyance zone is additionally studied and detailed maps are set up to demonstrate the places of streets, avenues, paths, local locations, business region, modern regions, gardens etc. A topographical map of the area is prepared to locate the high and low areas. The cross-section of streets, roads, lanes, etc. is prepared, showing the position of existing underground service lines like electric and telephone lines, sewer lines, existing water supply lines etc.
1.4.2 Method of Distribution
Three methods or systems are outlined under gravity system, pumping system, combined gravity, and pumping system. these methods brief explain in below:

Figure 1: (a) Gravity system, (b) Pumping system, (c) Combined gravity and Pumping system.
Gravity system Suitable for the source of supply is at sufficient height. The water head available to the consumer is the just minimum required and most reliable and economical distribution system. A relative position of the water reservoir with respect to town is as shown in Figure 1(a).The small-scale example of the pumping system is as shown in Figure 1(b).Treated water is directly pumped into the supply main exclusive of storing. Also called pumping without storage system, High lifts pumps are required.The gravity-based pumping system is as shown in Figure 1(c).Treated water is pumped and stored in an elevated distribution reservoir. The abundance water amid low request periods gets put away in a store and gets provided amid popularity period, Economical and reliable system.
1.4.3 The layout of Distribution Network
There are four principal methods of layout for distribution systems are following:

Figure 2: (a) Dead end or tree system (b) Gridiron system Circular (c) Circular or ring system (d) Radial system (www.slideshare.net)
• It is suitable for old towns and cities having no definite pattern of roads. The network is shown in Figure 2 (a) represent Dead end or tree system.
• It is appropriate for urban communities with the rectangular design, where the water mains and branches are laid in rectangles. The Figure shows 2 (b) delineates the Gridiron framework.
• Water can be supplied to any point from at least two directions. The network is shown in Figure 2 (c) shows circular or ring system.
• The area is divided into different zones in Radial system as shown in Figure 2 (d) this system gives quick service.

1.5 EPANET Software
1.5.1 Short Description of Program
EPANET is a Windows-based program that plays out a broadened period reproduction of water powered and water quality conduct inside pressurized pipe systems. A system can comprise of pipes, nodes (pipe junctions), pumps, valves and capacity tanks or supplies. EPANET tracks the stream of water in each pipe, the weight at every hub, the stature of water in each tank, and the convergence of concoction animal types all through the system amid a reproduction period contained various time steps. The Windows rendition of EPANET gives an incorporated situation to altering system input information, running pressure driven and water quality recreations, and reviews the outcomes in an assortment of arrangements. These incorporate shading cod organize maps, information tables, time arrangement diagrams, and shape plots. EPANET was made by the Water Supply and Water Resources Division of the U.S. Natural Protection Agency’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory. It is open space programming that may be energetically copied and passed on.
1.5.2 Additional Information (www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/SKAT-2002-Overview.pdf)
• Program variant: EPANET Version 2.0 (Release 2.00.09a)
• Distribution bolster: Web downloads (https://www.epa.gov/water-research/epanet)
• OS necessities: DOS, MS-Windows (95, 98, ME, NT, 2000)
• Hardware necessity: Processor: 80486/higher-Harddisk:2Megabytes, RAM:16 Megabyte
• Calculation limit: No limit on a number of nodes, channels, pumps, valves, supplies etc.
• Language: English
• Handbook: English, 200 pages with instructional exercise (pdf-file, downloadable)
• Support: Online enable, web to page, EPANET Users Group list server
• Pricing: Free Full source code and Programmer’s Toolkit uninhibitedly accessible.

1.6 Objectives
The current water supply system of the Sawale village in Panvel region has been observed, studied and analyzed. That water supply system was not designed by using any hydraulic software. The basic aim of this study is Network Analysis in Epanet of Water Supply System at Sawale village in Maharashtra with an interpretation of Georeferencing – A GIS Approach in the most efficient and effective way. Following are some of the other objectives that have been dealt with in the research work.
• To determine the Unit Head loss, Friction Factor, Pressure, Head, Velocity of the flow in the water distribution network.
• By the use of hydraulic software various relation are being found between Pressure v/s velocity, Pressure v/s flow, Demand v/s flow, Demand v/s Head-loss, etc. these relations can be understood by studying the graphs plotted.
• To provide distribution of water for different demand patterns along with adequate or sufficient quantity.

1.7 Problem Statement
Water distribution systems constitute a vital part of the civil infrastructure. In order to fulfill the water demand of the continuously growing population, it is essential to provide the sufficient and uniform quantity of water through the designed network of pipes. Water distribution systems at Sawale has been studied and analyzed. It is found that there is the scope for improvement in the system which can be done using the hydraulic software. Current water supply system in Sawale village was designed in 1991 in coordination with HOC Company in Rasayani. But in current situation HOC company has been shut down by the government. Current water supply is provided by MIDC which is costly and also does not fulfill current water supply demand of the village. The pipes used were of HOC Company and they are now buried under various new constructions like roads, house etc. It leads to wear and tear of the pipeline in current water supply system. The basic aim of this research is to determine the best possible way in which a given water distribution system can be optimized and to meet current demands of water in Sawale village. The new water supply system will be designed using the hydraulic software.
2 Literature Review
The following section present the brief summary of the work carried out by various researchers on, Reliability Simulation of Water Distribution Systems – Single And Multi-quality, Modelling Equitable Distribution of Water: Dynamic Inversion-Based Controller Approach, Water Distribution System Modelling by Using EPA-NET Software, Network analysis of water distribution system in rural areas using EPANET ,Case study for Chirala Municipality Andhra Pradesh and Digitizing Water Distribution Network.
T. Devi Prasad et al. (2004) the research talked about the paper which presents a multi-objective genetic algorithm approach to the design of a water distribution network (WDN).The objectives considered are the minimization of the network cost and maximization of a reliability measure. Zhang Feng-e et al. (2011) this paper discusses about examination of the dynamic re-enactment of water dispersion framework, water quality model of Hengshanqiao town water supply arrange is built up with EPANET programming which could reproduce remaining chlorine weakening procedure with every node of water age break down quantitatively the connection between leftover chlorine lessening and water age hub. P. Sivakumar et al. (2015) got comes about, for instance, pipe discharges, weight driven slant level of junctions, nodal fixations and so on., are regularly fresh esteems accepting fresh info parameters. The results show that the required time to run the simulation is same for all networks irrespective of the size after adopting particular Genetic Algorithm parameters tuning. G. Venkata Ramana et al. (2015) researched about the availability of sufficient quantity of good quality of water to the different section of the area in accordance with the demand. Numerous PC instruments were produced, out of the considerable number of apparatuses accessible EPANET turn out to be most prevalent and helpful for the powerful outline of complex pipe systems. Montasir Maruf et al. (2015) worked on the EPANET Programming .The territory has been demonstrated utilizing the EPANET programming based on information overview by Dhaka WASA. At last, this paper offers a displaying procedure of Banani region which will likewise conquer the conceivable dangers and vulnerabilities. Arjun Kumar et al. (2015) published paper on procedure to outline of water supply framework using EPANET .This work features the procedure did on the outline of water supply framework for a zone named KATHGARH with the assistance of this data the plan of the water supply conspire for the zone with the assistance of programming “EPANET”. The exploration discusses the water request of the ceaselessly developing populace; it is basic to give the adequate and uniform amount of water through the designed network of pipes. Dhara Surani et al. (2015) the most important purpose of the research works is to study the existing water supply system of Bawaliyari village, the source of the water and then planning water distribution system using Arc GIS. Shown by the examples given in this paper the purpose of a water distribution system is to ensure the supply of water to users at specified demands. G. Anisha et al. (2016) shown by the examples given in this paper the present system of supply adopted in Chirala municipality was an intermittent supply and the network adopted had a dead end system. This arrangement of supply of water in Chirala district could possibly be dependable to the up and coming years. Hence the investigate was all about the examination of the existing network and concludes about the reliability of the network for the future. Shivalingaswami.S.Halagalimath et al. (2016) work on water analysis of water distribution network. The main view of this research was to analyze the water distribution network and look out the deficiencies in it was analysis, establishment and its usage. At the end of the analysis, it was found that the resulting pressures at all the nodes and the links velocities are satisfied enough to provide water to the study area. R. K. Chowdhury et al. (2017) this paper was originated that 100% capture and reuse of grey water had no impact on the upstream water distribution network, but reduced the recommended design flow in the downstream sewer network. The modeling results showed that about 50% of generated gray water could be harvested without affecting the upstream and downstream water and sewer flow characteristics, respectively. Shivaprasad G. et al. (2017) the research talked about the present study shows the remodeling of the existing network and also designing the water distribution network using a programming tool, which plays out the broadened period recreation of water driven and water quality conduct inside the pressurized system of pipes called EPANET.
Summary from the literature review conducted, it is observed the research talks about the present study shows the remodeling of the existing network and also designing the water distribution network using a programming tool, which performs the extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within the pressurized network of pipes called EPANET.A network comprises of pipes, nodes, pumps, valve and storage tanks or reservoirs and this paper discusses the examination of the dynamic re-enactment of water dispersion framework, water quality model of Hengshanqiao town water supply arrange is built up with EPANET programming which could reproduce remaining chlorine weakening procedure with every node of water age break down quantitatively the connection between leftover chlorine lessening and water age hub.

3 Methodology
After a thorough study of literature, the appropriate methodology is fragmented and observations use in software and calculations were done. The initial step of the methodology of a proposed system involves data collection, observe and analyze the particular area or region. It means to study the selected area. The very next step is setting up the network based on the observation. This network can be drawn using EPANET software. After finalizing the network diagram it is then materialized in this software. The other minor but important details are necessarily provided for such a network in EPANET software. This important detail is categorized into link/pipe input and node/junction input. Link/pipe details include length, the diameter of pipe and roughness of relevant ground. Node/junction detail includes elevation of ground and demand of water at that node. This is fair enough to run EPANET software with the provided details. After running the network with given details the output is analyzed. This analyzed report would then tend to give the answer to a simple but effective question that whether it is satisfactory or not. If the analyzed result tends to unsatisfactory result then the details provided are returned and again the output is analyzed. If the analyzed result is satisfactory then the output is extracted in the form of graphs and tables. Figure 3 shows the flowchart of methodology. The data and tools used for this study are:
i) Road network map ( Source: Google map, Physical survey)
ii) Water demand (Source: Department of Rural water supply and construction, Panvel)
iii) Population (Source: Department of Rural water supply and construction, Panvel)
iv) EPANET software. (Tool)

.

Figure 3: Flowchart of methodology

3.1 Selection and Description of the study area

Figure 4: Satellite view of Sawale village (www.google.com/maps)
The area for which we are designing the water supply system is village Sawale, Taluka –Panvel, Dist.-Raigad, state- Maharashtra. Latitude and longitude coordinates are 18° 54′ 17.0958″ & 73° 9′ 23.3994, this village has a primary and secondary school and post office. The electricity, telephone, and bus facilities are available in the village. Being very near to Panvel city and in Rasayani industrial area, the possibility of the development is more. Figure 4 shows an area of study (i.e. Sawale village) obtained from Google map. The village Sawale have MIDC water supply as a source. But the scheme designed in 1991 and at this stage this scheme is outdated due to connection is on HOC company pipe. About 1kg pressure is available due to HOC Company now not in working state. And so people are not getting sufficient quantity of drinking water and also MIDC water tax is also more.
3.2 Data Collection for Field Survey
3.2.1 Population Determination
A. Arithmetical Increase Method
Population increases at constant rate (dp/dt = const.)
Pn = (P0 + n * X) —————————-(i)
B. Geometrical Increase Method
The rate of growth is progressively increasing or decreasing
Pn = (P0 + n X + n (n+1)/2 * Y) —————————-(ii)
C. Increase Method Percentage growth rate (r) is assumed to be constant
The increase is compounded for the existing population, every decade
Pn = P0 (1+ r/100) n —————————–(iii)
Where,
Pn= Forecasted Population after n decades
P0 = Population at present
n = No. of decades between now & future
X = Arithmetic Mean
Y= Av, of incremental increase
r = Growth rate

3.2.2 Previous Decades & Populations
Table 2: Statement Showing Population Forecast
Figure 5: Previous Decades & Populations
• Increase in Decade = Population 2- Population 1
= 844-587
= 257
• An incremental increase in decade = Increase in Decade 2-Increase in Decade 1
= 898-257
= 641
• % Rate of growth per decade = (Increase in Decade 1/ Population 1)*100
= (257/587)*100
= 43.782 %
Figure 5 shows population with respect to corresponding decades. Represents analysis of population shown in Table 2 and Table 3 shows predicted a population of next few decades.
Table 3: Calculating the Future Population
Sr. No. Year Arithmetic Method Geometric Progression Method Incremental Increase Method Average of Incremental Increase, Geometrical Progression Method & Arithmetic increase Method Average of Incremental Increase and Geometrical Progression Method
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 2018 2153 2763 1868 2261 2270 2458 2460
2 2028 2351 3537 1731 2540 2540 2944 2950
3 2033 2450 4001 1616 2689 2690 3226 3230
It is proposed to supply water at the rate of 40 Liters per head per day. Accordingly, daily demand figure would be as follows shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Description of Daily Demand
Sr. No Description Value Unit
1 Population as per 2011 1576 Souls.
2 Projected stage population for the year -2033 3230 Souls.
3 The rate of Water Supply 40 LPCD
4 Daily Demand for Projected Stage Population 129200 Liters
5 Add Distribution Losses 15% 19,380 Liters
6 Total Demand 1,48,580 Liters
0.149 MLD.

3.2.3 Source & Water Tank data

Figure 6: Sawale to Devloli Dam (www.google.com/maps) Figure 7: Production well near Sawale
At the downstream side of Devloli DAM Source well with trench Gallery selected as a source of water supply. Another sufficient source not available in the village so this source is selected for the proposed water supply scheme. Figure 6 shows the geographical positioning of Devloli dam with respect to Sawale village. Figure 7 shows one view of the Production Well and Figure 8 shows a flow diagram of Sawale to Devloli Dam.

Figure 8: Flow Diagram
Table 5 depicts details of different tanks of the Sawale dam. It gives detail of Ground level (G.L.) tank, Bottom Reduce Level (R.L.) and Full Supply Level (FSL) of the tank.
Table 5: Description of Tank Details
Sr. No. Tank Capacity Unit
1 RCC Tank of having the capacity 75000 Liters.
2 G.L. of Tank 111.50 Mt.
3 Bottom R.L. 123.50 Mt.
4 FSL of Tank 127.00 Mt.

3.3 Setting up the network in Software
Different figures show steps involved in setting up the network using EPANET software. Figure 8 shows the relative position of a junction on Google earth image of the corresponding area.

Figure 8: Google Earth-image Joint Photographic Experts Group converts to a Bitmap image
Figure 9 shows steps to load and unload Google earth image as a background image in EPANET respectively.

Figure 9: Setting up the network in Software – (a) load and (b) Unload
Different roughness coefficients for different types of pipes. Galvanized Iron pipe Roughness of link is120, these pipes are broadly utilized for passing on crude water and circulation of treated water in the majority of rustic water supply plans, where the necessity of water is less. Mostly mid-range quality GI pipes are utilized. These pipes are modest, light in weight and simple to deal with and transport and simple to join. Their sizes fluctuate from 15mm to 150mm, there for use in Galvanized Iron pipe. Following Figure 10 shows various data like length and diameter to be given as input to EPANET.

Figure 10: Input File (Link)

Figure 11: Input File (Junction)
Figure 11 shows data of junction like the elevation and demand to be provided as input to the EPANET. The elevation is used only to compute pressure at the junction. It does not affect any other computed quantity. A negative value of demand is used to indicate an external source of flow into the junction.
4 Results and Conclusion
By the use of hydraulic software various relation are being found between elevation, velocities, flow, pressure, head, demand etc. these relations can be understood by studying the graphs plotted. Hydraulic software estimates the flow of water in each pipe and the pressure at each node, EPANET is designed to be a research tool for improving the movement of drinking water within the distribution network.

Figure 12: (a) Data Report of a link (or pipe) and (b) Data report of nodes in a pipeline network
Figure 12 (a) shows data report of links in pipeline network obtained in EPANET software. This data report shows value given as input as well as some of the calculated values such as flow, velocity etc. Figure 12 (b) shows data report of nodes in pipeline network obtained in EPANET software. This data report shows value given as input as well as some of the calculated values such as Head, pressure etc.
Figure 13: (a) Demand Distribution Network Diagram and (b) Pressure Distribution Network Diagram
Figure 13 (a) shows a various demand pattern of each junction. It can be clearly observed from the following figure that end node has different demand. Figure 13 (b) shows the different pattern of pressure throughout the distribution network. The similar Figure like velocity, Flow, Diameter, and Length are achieving in Epanet software.

Figure 14: (a) Pressure v/s flow and (b) Demand v/s flow distribution in Network Diagram
Figure 14 (a) shows pressure versus flow distribution in the network and Figure 14 (b) shows Demand v/s flow distribution in the network diagram. The similar Figure like Pressure v/s velocity and Demand v/s Head-loss is achieving in Epanet software.

Figure 15: (a) Link Results and (b) Node / Junction Results
Figure 15 (a) shows output values like Velocity, Unit Head loss and Friction Factor obtained for various links and Figure 15 (b) shows results Head and Pressure obtained for various nodes or junction, with the help of all the results to provide distribution of water for different demand patterns along with adequate or sufficient quantity.

References
1 Arjun Kumar, Kankesh Kumar, Bharanidharan B, Neha Matial, Eshita Dey, Mahan Singh, Vivek Thakur, Sarit Sharma, Neeraj Malhotra,(2015)”Design of Water Distribution System Using Epanet”, International Journal of Advanced Research, Volume 03, Issue 09, pp.789 – 812.
2 Arjun Kumar, Ashwani Kumar, Ashok Kumar, Himanshu Mittal and Rakhi Bhardwaj,(2012)”Software to Estimate Spectral and Source Parameter”, International Journal of Geosciences, Volume 03,pp.1142-1149.
3 Dhara Surani, Gautam V. Dihora,(2015)”Digitizing Water Distribution Network and topography mapping from Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using 3D Analyst ; Spatial Analyst “International Journal for Innovative Research in Science &Technology, Volume 01, Issue 11, pp.472-476.
4 G. Venkata Ramana, Ch.V.S. S. Sudheer, B.Rajasekhar, (2015) “Network analysis of water Distribution system in rural areas using EPANET”, cross mark, Volume 119, pp.496 – 505.
5 G. Anisha, A. Kumar, J. Ashok Kumar, P. Suvarna Raju,(2016)”Analysis and Design of Water Distribution Network Using EPANET for Chirala Municipality in Prakasam District of Andhra Pradesh”, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Volume 03, Issue 04,pp.53-60.
6 Jafar Mamizadeh & Shokofeh Sharoonizadeh, (2016) “Application of modified complementary reservoir approach in the analysis of water distribution networks under pressure deficient conditions”, Urban Water Journal, Volume 14, Issue 04, pp.1-8.
7Montasir Maruf, Mohammad, Abrar Arif Chowdhury, Rifat Al Muzaddid, Mohammad Shahedur Rahman,(2015)”Water Distribution System Modeling By Using EPA-NET Software”, research gat,pp.1-7.
8 P. SivaKumar &R. K. Prasad & S. Chandramouli, (2015) “Uncertainty Analysis of Looped Water Distribution Networks Using Linked EPANET-GA Method”, cross mark, Volume 30, Issue 01, pp.331–358.
9 RASOOL Ahmadullah, KANG Dongshik, (2015) “Construction of Hydraulically Balanced Water Distribution Network”, IEEE, pp.96-98.
10 R. K. Chowdhury and M. A. Rajput, (2017) “Will greywater reuse really affect the sewer flow? The experience of a residential complex in Al Ain, UAE” Water Science &Technology: Water Supply, Volume 17, Issue 01, pp.246-258.
11 Shivalingaswami.S.Halagalimath, Vijaykumar.H, Nagaraj.S.Patil,(2016)”Hydraulic modeling of water supply network using EPANET ” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 03, Issue 03,pp.1022-1027.
12 Shivaprasad G. Jumanalmath, Anand V. Shivapur,(2017)”Analysis of 24×7 Water Distribution Network of Gabbur zone in Hubballi city, Karnataka state, India using EPANET software” International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume04, Issue 02, pp.478-485.
13 T. Devi Prasad and Nam-Sik Park, M.ASCE, (2004) “Multi-objective Genetic Algorithms for Design of Water Distribution Networks”, J. Water Resource Plan. Manage, Volume 130, Issue 01, pp.73-82.
14 Zhang Feng-e, Chen Chun-fang, Li Yuan, Dong Lang-fei, Tu Bao-Hua,(2011)”The Investigation of Relationship between Residual Chlorine Simulation Attenuation and Nodes Water Again Water Distribution System by EPANET”, IEEE, pp.736-739.

Website References:
www.slideshare.net
www.google.com/maps
www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/SKAT-2002-Overview.pdf
http://www.innovyze.com/products/epanet/download/P1007WWU.pdf
https://www.epa.gov/water-research/epanet

Book References:
“Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering” including Environmental Engineering Water and Air Pollution Act’s by G. S. Birdie and J. S. Birdie, Published by K. K. Kapur.

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