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NameMUHAMMAD NAIM BIN KAMARAZAMANMatric Number1328277KulliyyahKULLIYYAH OF LANGUAGES AND MANAGEMENTDepartmentENGLISH FOR INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION (ENCOM)Course TitleSEMANTICSCourse CodeENCO 3101Name of LecturerDR. ALI AL-SAYED HASSAN AL-HALAWANISection NumberSECTION 1Date of Submission6TH OF MAY 2016 1 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES Table of Contents Acknowledgement31.0Introduction4-52.0Problem Statements53.0Research Methodology64.0Findings and Discussion6-95.0Limitations of the Study9-106.0Conclusion107.0Reference10 Acknowledgement All praises to Allah S.W.T and to Him alone. He bestowed us health and ability to Alhamdulillah, successfully completing this 2000 words assignment. Words are insufficient to describe our gratefulness and appreciation to Him throughout the process of this assignment. I would like to express my utmost gratitude to our instructor, Dr. Ali Al-Sayed Hassan Al-Halawani for his continuous guidance in the whole process of completing this assignment. May Allah shower him with all His blessings and rizq. Additionally, I would also like to express my gratitude to all ten respondents of this study for their willingness to sacrifice their leisure time to help me in collecting data and information in order to complete this paper. Million thanks to my parents for giving me support, and not to be forgotten my special friend, Nurunnazihah binti Mohd Azani for her advice and ideas that had contributed for this study. I am extremely grateful for all the love and guidance from them who involved in aiding me to conduct this paper. May Allah reward you with His blessings for your kindness. Thank you. 3 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES 1.0 Introduction In English language there is a study of meaning that called Semantics. Semantics involves the study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences. Meanings are conventionalised and convey in such various ways. It brings by the analysis of semantics in which lexical relations take part in the study. Lexical relation play important roles in analysing the relationship of lexemes. This study has conducted on the part of hyponym. According to Riemer (2010), Hyponymy (Greek hypo- under) is the lexical relation described in English by the phrase kind/type/sort of. A chain of hyponym defines a hierarchy or elements. For example, sport car is a type of car, while a car in turn, is a hyponym of vehicle since a car is a kind of vehicle. Hyponym is a relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of the other words. This study is about to find the relationship between the hyponymy in English and Malay language. As second language learners, Krashen has claimed that adult second language learners have two means for internalizing the target language as cited in Brown (2000). The first means is what has called as learning acquisition. This term is referring to the learners where they are subconsciously constructing the system of that language. In simpler words, second language learner acquire language through intuitive process that he or she is not aware of. In contrast the second means is known as language learning or conscious learning in which learners are generally aware of their own learning and process that they can figure out the rules, able to attempt to form and others. Based on this study, it is obvious the respondents acquire limited vocabulary of English language as compared to Malay language. This study is focussing on TESL students that they are the future teachers and most of them are going to be teaching in secondary school. Having said that, it is 4 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES actually important for them to be able to identify the superordinate terms especially when they go teaching in schools in the future. 2.0 Problem Statements Students of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) have difficulties in categorizing the superordinate according to class. In other words, they are having problems in understanding the meanings of terms in English language due to the fact that they acquire Malay language as their mother tongue. They are not able to comprehend certain terms in which it may lead to different interpretation and meanings. The acquisition of Malay language affects the students understanding of certain English terms. Research Questions How the TESL students classify the superordinate terms into hyponym (class) that affected by the first language and second language What are the factors that lead to their different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym Research Objectives To identify TESL students interpretation of superordinate terms based on schema theory of first language and second language acquisition. To investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym. 5 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES 3.0 Research Methodology This research was conducted in IIUM. It was a quantitative research in which questionnaire has been given to 10 students. The scope of the study was limited to Kuliyyah of Educations students in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), which is focussing on 10 TESL (Teaching Language as Second Language) students. The questionnaire was carried out in order to find out the relationship on Hyponymy in English and Malay languages. The time allocated for them to answer the survey is within fifteen minutes. The survey was given by hand by myself and it consists of four questions. 4.0 Findings and Discussion 4.1 TESL students interpretation Based on the survey that was conducted, these students tend to have different interpretation of hyponymy towards certain words. Here is the result of the survey for question Q1 that ask the students to classify birds, Peacock10Parrot10Ostrich9Dove10Penguin2Crow10 Most of the students tend to interpret bird as animals that fly. These students have classified peacock, parrot, dove and crow as birds. Therefore, they regard ostrich and penguin as animal that are not belong to bird class. 6 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES For question Q2, this is the result of the number of students that have marked on transportation, Taxi10Jeep10Hot air balloon3Ambulance7Motorcycle10Submarine10 As we can see from the result above, for the transportation, the 10 respondents manage to classify taxi, jeep, ambulance, motorcycle, and submarine as the hyponymy of transportation. However, only three respondents classified the hot air balloon as the transportation while nine students did not sure about it as they think hot air balloon are not belong to transportation class. For the result of the survey for question Q3 that ask the students to classify the Malay words hyponymy of the superordinate Sayur (Vegetables) Tomato5Lobak (Carrots)10Kentang (Potatoes)9Bawang (Onions)10Labu (Pumpkins)10Keladi (Yams)8 Usually most of the students tend to interpret vegetables must be green in colour. These students have classified lobak, kentang, bawang, labu, keladi as vegetables. Through the respondents above, there are only five students which 7 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES are only half of the respondents agreed that tomato is the hyponymy of the vegetables. For the last question Q4, this is the result of the number of students that have marked on pakaian (Clothes), Topi (Hat)6Skirt10Baju (Shirt)10Kasut (Shoes)7Stokin (Socks)7Tali pinggang (Belt)8 For the pakaian, the hyponymy baju and skirt, all the 10 respondents agreed that both of them are categorized under clothes. Meanwhile, for topi, kasut, stokin, and tali pinggang, not all of them managed to identify are the four items are the hyponymy of clothes class. 4.2 Factors lead to interpretation People often unable to classify the superordinate terms into hyponym (class) either the first language which is Malay language or the second language which is English. Indeed there must factors that lead to their different interpretation towards them. The questionnaire might seems simple but actually it gave the general view how did people unable to classify based on characteristics. As we can see from the Q1, people mostly think when it comes to bird class, the birds must have wings and able to fly in the air. That becomes the solid reason why the 8 out of 10 students failed to classified penguin as in bird class. Barely, we can see penguin fly in the air, mostly they only walk or sliding using their belly. Same goes to the Q2, there are only 3 students categorized the 8 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES hot air balloon as the hyponymy of transportation. This may be due to the fact the respondents are unable to understand the classes well. Generally, when it comes to the transportation, the first thing that will pop-up in our minds is of course a car, a vehicle that have four tyres, comfortable, using for travel and such things related to it. Back to the hot air balloon issue, maybe people only think the hot air balloon just for the entertainment, just for the exhibition and it is not used for the medium to travel to one place to another. As for Q3, half of the respondents are not able to identify either tomato falls under vegetables class or fruit class. As for the shape, tomato is round in shape and it slightly looks like apple. Again this is because the students are unable to understand the classes well. When we talked about vegetables class, it must be green in colour such as cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, and others. Last but not least for the Q4, topi or in English, Hat, there are 4 students unable to identify the either it falls under clothes category or not. This is because, they might think that hat falls under accessories. Clothes can be defined as the things that people wear to cover their bodies and that are usually made from cloth ( Highlight the word COVER THEIR BODIES. That has become the reason why 4 respondents respond that topi is not fall under clothes as it not literally cover our bodies, it only cover our heads or hairs. 5.0 Limitation of the study Although the research has reached its aims, there were some unavoidable limitations. First, because of the time limit, this research was conducted only on a small size of population consists of only 10 TESL students from the Kulliyyah of Education. Therefore, in order to generalize the results for larger groups, the study should involve more participants at different kulliyyahs as well such Kulliyyah of Engineering, Kulliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human 9 HYPONYMY IN IN ENGLISH AND MALAY LANGUAGES Sciences, Kulliyyah of Economics and so on. Secondly, the data collected was through questionnaire and only consists of 4 questions which are two English words and two Malay words. Last but not least, lack of previous research as it is quite hard to find articles that related to the hyponymy in Malay language. 6.0 Conclusion As mentioned in the 1.0, a chain of hyponymy defines the hierarchy or elements certain class group. This paper is trying to focussing on to find the relationship of hyponymy between English language and Malay language, and to investigate the factors contributing to the different interpretation towards superordinate terms and hyponym. Effective alternatives have to be taken by the students in order for them to be able mastered in recognizing or classifying the characteristics classes of certain words or objects. As semantics involves the study of meaning of words, phrases, and sentences, dictionary plays a vital role in helping the students in overcoming the issue. 7.0 Reference Cowie, A. P. (2009). Semantics. New York Oxford University Press Brown, D. H (2000). Principles of language learning teaching (4th ed). New York Longman. Riemer, N (2010). Introducing Semantics. Cambridge University Press 10 qS_Cc
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