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DED 1301
1. Outline and explain 5 methods/strategies of mobilizing financial resources for public development projects.
a) Donor agency
Donor is an organization or a person who willingly or voluntarily donates resources in form of money, information, materials and energy.
We can get financial resources from donor agencies to support any public project. It is a matter of writing a good proposal requesting for cash, material and energy resources from maximum number of donor agencies so that incase one refuses to give the donation, the other agencies are in a position to continue with their support. It is also advisable to expand the relations with the national, local, private and public sectors for a stable income generation.
The donation can also be in form of boxes where you request donations from the public by placing boxes in a stationary point. It can be a hospital, school, airports, or any other public places.
b) Fundraisings
This is a way of getting voluntary contributions of money or other resources. This can be done by organizing fundraising events whereby mobilizing of people can be done by distributing contribution papers, synthesizing the public through media, newspapers, audio visual materials, billboards, stickers or contacting them directly. This fundraising can also be by grants from the government or charitable organizations which are willing to contribute finance for public projects. The fundraising is done by inviting guest of honors in a place booked by an organization which can include churches, schools, stadiums, conference halls. This fundraising can be successful by having good communication skills and consulting the existing donors and the local communities.
c) Income generation
Income is money earned after work done. The work can either be self, public or private employed. Business oriented projects organizations can come together and contribute their incomes and other resources to start a public project in a different location of their choice. This type of resources mobilizing is done by the Indians and Somalis who mostly run family businesses. Although this is how they operate their businesses but most of them are generous and can contribute to start a public project which will help the surrounding and create employment opportunities to the public. Civil servants can decide to contribute some of their incomes to establish a public project. Most churches in the countryside are built using the contributions from incomes of their congregation.
d) Government policy
Tax is money payable to the government. This money is used to build schools, infrastructure, hospitals, stadiums and social amenities. It is also used to pay salaries of public servants. A public project can get its financial resources through the government by the proprietors writing proposals or during finance allocation to different places. Yearly during the budget reading the government allocates a certain amount of money to different firms for public projects. It can be for construction of bridges, infrastructure, schools or hospitals and this money is allocated to the government officials like governors, senators, members of parliament and head of different departments. The government can also borrow funds from developed countries or any good established film; get loans so that the money is distributed for the establishment of public projects.
e) By raising fees
This can be done when different organizations whether public, private or international decide to collect funds through increasing partnership by raising a certain fee to either goods or services rendered so as to acquire financial resources for a public project. The other way of raising fees would be for the NGOS to carry out the construction of public resting places, canals, schools, monastery, worshipping areas and hospitals; and the local body to pay back to the NGO. The county government on the other hand can collect some cash by raising the parking fees for vehicles, in the market stalls and the street vendors. This can be seen like harassing the less fortunate but with proper communication and negotiation skills, people will be able to understand what is happening. Also an organization can raise fees by selling its technical skills, becoming trainees or raising fees from visitors from individuals or organizations doing research in another organization

2. State and describe 5 skills required for effective resource mobilizing
a) Communication skills
Communication is a way of transmitting knowledge or information to someone else. To have an effective resource mobilizing, one has to have best communication skills to be able to convince people to mobilize resources. Mobilizing of resources to take place people have to be communicated to by either verbal or nonverbal; through media.
People have to be told the reasons for resource mobilization so as they can extend their contributions in form of cash, materials, information, energy or skills.
One needs also to communicate clearly both verbally or written to be able to give advice and inspire trust to develop a strong rapport otherwise getting the resources required will be hard because of the mistrust.
Leaders in a given organization needs to have good communication skills to be able to explain the specific goals and tasks. He should be able to master all forms of communication, including conversations, one-on-one and be computer literate to be able to communicate with people through media, phones and emails

b) Management and leadership skills
These skills are essential in resource mobilization because both involve decision-making, planning, communication and problem solving. For resources to be brought on board, it needs proper planning and communication to achieve the goal. People mobilizing the resources need to keep a record of all the events for future reference and be a role model.
In order to be an effective leader and manager, one needs more than a good attitude and intentions of uniting people. Unity is the key to strong bondage which is unbreakable thus making people to do great things and fight back in case of problem. If the leaders have good vision the team members will not feel confused but organized and have an initiate to prioritize thus leading to effective resource mobilization

c) Writing skills/financial reporting skills
Financial resources are one of the key resource mobilizations, for it to be effective the knowledge and skills of writing is needed especially in proposal writing to the donor agencies and other financing institutions. Good and appropriate proposal convinces people to contribute more resources unlike if a person writing the proposal or requisition does not have good writing and reporting skills.
On the other hand financial reporting skills are more effective in an organization because most of decisions of private or public organizations depends or relay on a good detailed and accurate financial reports. Inaccurate resource reports can damage the image of an organization thus discouraging investors and donors in investing in such places.
d) Interpersonal skills
In resource mobilization one needs to have a clue and be in a position to tackle complex problems as they arise. In any given organization misunderstandings are inevitable but how to deal with it needs more personal skills.
During resource mobilization, for it to be effective patience and courage is a guarantee because it is not easy to convince people to contribute their resources especially in grants and donations. Also in energy resource people will tend to be rigid but with patience and a convincing words one can harvest more than he thought off.
When mobilizing resources many obstacles may arise, when such problems arises one needs to be strong, these can be cases of theft, natural hazards and death many resources are destroyed and lost. The resources destroyed have to be replaced and this needs extra personal skills to mobilize them again.
Personal skills like trust and integrity are essential and lead to an effective resource mobilization. People need to trust someone with their resources. Trust leads to a strong bond in that one is convinced of gaining or getting good resources.
e) Innovation skills
Innovation means introducing and creating new important ideas and issues related to life. This can help in mobilizing resources when people with such skills are able to think critical and solve difficult problems experienced by human beings. Innovation skills help one to build new things to create and develop new ideas with others. Collaboration is very essential because different organizations brings their thoughts together and end up with something meaningful which will help others and the community in general. The reason these skills of creativity, communication and critical thinking is becoming important is because of the changing nature of the work and the rapid pace at which change is spreading. For example the technology of computers has spread like bush fire and everyone is enjoying the resources. Incase more new innovations can come up then life will be easier as compared to the olden days.
Finance and accounting may be associated with normal routines systems but that does not mean that innovation in new resources has changed much.


Name: Askar Zhanbatyr Group: Accounting and Audit
Topic: Resource management and Budgeting
As this world is created ideally, so everything in the world should be managed also in a perfect way. But people cannot manage resources greatly, then population just trying to learn how, what, by which steps to manage the Earth, everything that around us. Imagine that, animals, flora and faunas are not acting by orderly, for example, Animals are speaking, consequently, there will be disastrous of management of functions. Oppositely, they are doing what should do, eating and giving benefits for people.

According to the above information, I would like introduce that in Economy also we need such kind of management, controlling of finances, resources, budgets and etc.
Mainly in my research, I would like to explain and show what I understood from our passed subjects like FFM, Corporate Finance. Therefore, I want to add that I did not include any articles, because it was so complicated for me even if I had read. However, I will conclude this project as theoretically, also passing with examples, reasons of use, and conclusion:
What is resource management and budgeting? Key factors, concepts?
Why it is Essential? For which reason do we use?
Advantages and disadvantages
What is resource management?
As I told that all the things should be regulated, so, in Economic sphere there is a theory of Resource Management, which means that RESOURCE could be anything, physically, measurable or not physically detected. Resource Controlling – is the process by which shareholders and business bodies regulates effectively and efficiently. Resources divide into two tangible and intangible, for tangible – buildings, equipment, cash; and for intangible are – brand names, time, goodwill.
As well as, it needs planning greatly, so it means that proper resources should be allocated to the right place, in a good way. Controlling resources include list of capitals, budgets for individuals, projects, outfit, and plants. How often utilized in respect to project management, this spread over to numerous alternative areas of corporate management. A tiny low business, most of all, may focus on to resource management within a variety of areas, that have important key factors as:
Moneys – are there enough incomes to covers expenses in order to invest money?
People – are the right people for the work? Whether you want to hire, if he receives the new client, and if so, what skills employers should demonstrate in front of clients?
Place of work – the Office of the company or production premises are configured in such a way that other resources can be managed with maximum efficiency?
Equipment- has it the tools needed to make that necessary?
Technology – what are the requirements, calculations, methods for business in order to achieve success, so how much financial assets should be spent, for which that we do not have yet?

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For instance, in scheme organization (project management):
When we use in relation to project management resource management is often applied to leveling and smoothing of resources. Resource leveling is intended to avoid the shortage or surplus stock, keeping a stock of resources at a level that avoids both problems. Specialized software can help determine this level.

It is also used in references to the time needed to complete the project. When aligning the start and end dates are adjusted so that they are combined with the availability of resources. Orientation can extend the time of the project. Anti-aliasing is a method of resource planning, which tries to meet the specified deadline, avoiding peaks and valleys among the wealth. General aim of project management – is the purpose of the continuous use of resources over time.

At the simplest level, for small business, resource management is to ensure that company uses its talents and materials wisely and effectively.

What is Capital Budget, budgeting?
Financing or budgeting is that the method of making a strategy to pay their cash. This payment is well known as budget. The creation of this value arrange permits you to work out earlier whether or not you have got enough cash to try to what would really like you wish to try to or would like to create.

If you do not have enough cash to try to everything that you simply would wish to try to, then you’ll be able to use this coming up with method to make priority your payment and focus their cash on things that square measure most significant to you.

Why is Capital Budgeting so Important?
As preparation of the budget allows you to create the plan of expenses on your money, it provides, that you always will enough have money for things which you require, and things which are important for you. After the budget or the spending plan will hold also you not having debts or to help you to work your way not having debts if you will have now a duty.

What does mean Capital finance Forecasting ; to plan?
As soon as you have created your first budget, start using it and get a good idea of how planning can keep your finances on track, you can compose your spending plan or budget for any months to a year or years down the road. By doing this, you can easily predict what months your finances can be difficult and which ones you will have extra money. Then you can look for ways to line up the highs and lows in your finances in regarding to be more manageable and enjoyable.
Expanding your budget within the future conjointly permits you to predict what proportion cash you’ll be able to save on the vital things, like your vacation, a new car, your initial home repair or home emergency bank account or your retirement. Use of accurate budget to predict your expenses for a year, will really assist you in long monetary scheduling. Then you will be able to build realistic assumptions regarding his annual financial gain and expenses, and to set up long economic goals, like gap your own business, investment or entertaining property purchase or retirement.

Key factors to evaluate budgeting:
As I have passed these theories, I decided to compute in my work because, without comparing NPV or IRR companies could not make right decisions think
Shareholders of firms like better to be made instead of the poor. in order that they wish the firm invested with in every project, that is value quite it’s value. The distinction between value the worth the price} of the project and its cost web gift value (NPV). Firms will best facilitate its shareholders by finance in comes with positive NPV or oppositely delaying those that have a low negative NPV.

In our Corporate Finance lesson, these underlying reverse with an outline of the NPV rules. Then we tend to travel to other actions that the corporate might face in creating investment choices. the primary 2 of those measures, the payback amount of the project and therefore the book profit higher than rules of thumb, it’s simple to calculate and communicate simply. Though there’s an area during this world for empirical rules, the engineer would like one thing a lot of correct once coming up with a 100-story building, and therefore the monetary manager can would like quite the rule of thumb once creating important choices on investments in capital.
Instead of conniving the NPV project, the company often compare the expected rate of return on investment in a project with a return that shareholders could earn about equivalent risk investments among the capital market. The one the company accepts those comes that provide profitability, that shareholders could earn for themselves. If when properly used, this rate of return rule should the definition of comes that increase the value of the firm. However, we will see that the rule establishes several pitfalls for the gullible. We conclude the chapter by showing the thanks to copewith things where the firm has exclusively restricted capital. This gives rise to two problems. One-computational. AT simple cases, we’ve an inclination to simply take the comes that offer. The highest NPV per greenback, but plenty of sophisticated methods usually ought to be compelled to be sorted out possible selections. Another downside is resolved Is there very a standardization of capital and can this invalidates internet gift value rule. NPV, properly understood, wins among the end.

Example; We are investing 100000 with payback of 110000 after 5 years. So IRR also calculated by, it is 10%
time money cash flow 8%
0 -100000  
1 10000 9259,259259
2 10000 8573,388203
3 10000 7938,32241
4 10000 7350,298528
5 110000 74864,15167
irr 10%  
npv 7985,42  Npv= sum of 1 to 5 – 0

According to the graph above, we can detect that NPV is positive number, that is found by percentage of cash flows at the back time and difference between investing. If I had company, I would invest on it.

Nowadays 75% of firms always or almost always expect the net present value when deciding on investment projects. About three quarters of firms expect the internal rate of return of the project (or IRR); about the same proportion as using NPV.A rule is a close relative of the IRR and NPV, if used properly, it will give same answer. That’s why you need to understand the IRR rule and how to take care when using it. Much of this chapter is devoted to explaining the rules of the IRR, but first we’ll look at the other two indicators of attractiveness of the project-the project payback period and its book value return. As we will explain, both measures have obvious deficiencies. some companies rely on they take the investment decision, but using for alternative way of measures.
Regarding the above example, we can determine that NPV mainly depends on cash flow. Not on book returns.
Net present value (NPV) depends on money flows of project and capital flows. However once corporations report back to shareholders, they do not simply show cash flowing, they conjointly book rate of come, i.e., accounting, financial gain and record assets. money managers generally use that numbers to calculate book (or accounting) the gain of projected investments. In different words, they appear at the prospect of record financial gain as a share of the value of the assets that the firm offers acquire.

Book rate of return = book income / book assets

Cash flows and book financial gain usually take issue, as an example, shortcuts comptroller some outflows of funds as capital investments et al as operative expenses.Work, of course, prices ar subtracted directly from financial gain every year. Capital expenditures ar mirrored on the record of the corporate, and so amortized.The annual quantity of charge is subtracted from financial gain every year.Thus, the speed of come back zavisitottogo that articles accountantrassmatrivaetkak capital investment and the way quickly they’re evaluated.

Mentioning IRR code of rules (joking)
Internal rate of return policy accept investment project, if the cost of capital is less than the internal rate of return. If it is equal to IRR, NPV project with 0. And if it is larger than the IRR, NPV project meet negatively. Therefore, when we compare the alternative cost of capital with the IRR on our project, we effectively ask has our project with positive NPV. This is true not only for our example. Rule gives also answer typically net present value whenever the NPV of the project is smoothly decreasing function of the discount rate. Many firms use internal rate of return as a criterion of preference net present value. I believe that this is a very sorry. Although, as it is mentioned, these two criteria are formally equivalent, internal rate of return rule contains several pitfalls.

Decision on IRR
I have given a few samples of things that may fail with IRR. Companies have a tendency to spent a lot of less space on payback or come back on book. Will this mean that IRR is worse than the opposite two measures? Quite the contrary. There is very little purpose in lodging on the deficiencies of payback or come back on book. They are clearly unexpected measures that always cause silly conclusions. The IRR rule contains a rather more respectable ancestry. It is less simple to use than NPV,but, used properly, it provides constant same answer.
As we known NPV and IRR so, they have their advantages and disadvantages on the project.

NPV directly measuring method of money (dollar) influence to the owners.

IRR technique demonstrates what is going to come back on the first cash endowed.

On the other hand, we have disadvantages of that methods:
The NPV technique doesn’t actually shows the size of project.

IRR technique will, occasionally, provide you with unexpected data compared to NPV for mutually exclusive projects. The “multiple IRR problem” can even play the role of a problem. It takes place when, there are just negative cash flows “non-normal cash flow”.

Conclusion : To sum up, I want to say that my topic – resource management and budgeting, is one of the big, general item in Corporate Finance, even in general life style of human being, because it is very important action, decision making process. First of all, you should take information, check, planning by IRR, NPV and finally analyze and invest on project.
If I’m going to convince my company to use net present value rule, I should be ready to explain why other rules cannot lead to correct solutions. That is why Corporate Finance considered three alternative investments.

Some firms look at book profit on the project. In this case the company takes the decision of which payments are capital costs and choose suitable bid for their amortization cost. Then calculated the ratio of the balance of income to the carrying value of the investment.
Few companies currently based my investment decision just at book rate of profit, but the shareholders pay attention to the book company profitability and some managers, therefore, look badly at projects that harm Portrait of the company’s profit margins.
Other entities use the method of payback for making investment decisions. In other words, they take only those projects which recover their initial investment within some specified period. Payback is Ad hoc rule. It ignores the period of cash flows during the period of recoupment, and it completely ignores the subsequent cash flow. So, it does not involve the opportunity cost of capital.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is defined as the discount rate, at which the flow, it would be a zero NPV. It is a simple measure and is widely used in finance; You must therefore know how to calculate it. IRR rule stipulates that companies must invest on complex IRR exceeding the cost of capital. Rule of IRR, as net present value, a method based on discounted cash flows. So, this gives good range when you use properly. When developing rules for NPV we tend to proceeded from the actual fact that the corporate might maximize shareowner wealth, taking each project, that price over it is price. Furthermore, if the investment is harshly restricted, then there might NOT BE taken every project with a positive NPV. But for me, NPV is easiest way to calculate and make decisions for the future of company.

Eventually, all the things that I have noticed to my mind, are just these information, so, in my point of view, resource management & capital budgeting is very important in our daily life, despite our ages. To be honest, I just learned this hypothetically, not in a real life, I have many problems with my much budgeting, such as time, money, interests.




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TOPIC: The role of social media ( Facebook)in Edo state governorship election of 2015.

1.1 Background of Study
Facebook, which is an American online social media and social networking site, was establiashed on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with his fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. On the planet today, all types of media and their devices are considered vital elements that advance majority rules system and great administration. Through the media, the voice of the general population, and also their considerations on political issues are reverberated. There is additionally a clear cooperative energy between the new media instruments accessible today and the political existence of individuals, and it commonly sets the phase for a powerful, intelligent and destructive adaptation of political correspondence.

For the ordinary man in sub-Saharan Africa, this detail makes the new media a favoured decision as a stage of articulation and hotspot for news. Similarly for some political on-screen characters it turns into a road to contact the general population at an altogether less cost as far as cash and calculated. It likewise makes it simple to convey as a toolbox for political purposeful publicity and also bridle social understanding. Along these lines, the utilization of the new media in the present political space is fairly imperative to every single political partner. The Electorate, Political Parties, the Electoral Management Bodies (EMB), Civil Societies, the Media and the Worldwide Community all discover use for it. General classes of new media apparatuses being referred to incorporate the Social Media, Texting Services and Big Data Analytical apparatuses to say a couple. They comprise of our regular apparatuses for portable correspondence adequately changed and repurposed for political correspondence. As a rule, they do not require much overhead as far as cost, nor is their utilization compelled by geographic space and time.

Election can be defined as a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organizations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

Election is a very critical tool in politics because it is through elections that people choose who they want to rule over them and this is mainly seen in a democratic system in order to select their representatives.

So far, the candidates have used different ways in order for them to tell the citizens to vote them into power, some do it by placing posters, making adverts on TV and also on radios, publishing their advert on newspapers and magazine. Billboards ads and brand sponsorships etc but the most known way for campaigning is through social media.( Instagram, snap chat, twitter, facebook).

It is said that over a billion people in the world are on one social media or another and are fully active and therefore because the candidates know full well that a lot of people get their information online they post their campaigns online for people to see and be fully aware of their plan to rule and what they plan on acquiring over the years that they are going to run for.

It is imperative to bring up here that online life is anything but another idea. There have been a decent number of online networking stages before Face book Twitter, YouTube and others. A portion of these stages incorporate Classmates, Sixdegrees, and Ryze. Then, the 21st century has seen the advancement of new types of online life systems controlled by the web, for example, Face book, YouTube and Twitter benefit among others.” The development of these new types of social media upset numerous parts of human correspondence. Along these lines, social media have turned into a common piece of the regular day to day existences of individuals everywhere throughout the world ” (Ajayi and Adesote, 2015 : 48 ). Allen (2012) and Scholz (2008) have contended that “web based life applications are not new and that their starting points can be followed two years sooner than 2005. They additionally included that Blogs were at that point around toward the finish of the 1990’s, the wiki innovation was suggested by Ward Cunningham in 1994 and first discharged in 1995; long range informal communication locales as of now existed in 1995 furthermore, Google was established in 1999 ” (Referred to in Fuchs, 2014:34). This suggests that internet based life isn’t as new as individuals have been made to get it.

A basic examination of the rising pattern in the utilization of online life for the most part in Nigeria demonstrates that online networking, for example, Face book, Blackberry Messenger, WhatsApps, Twitter, Blog, MySpace, YouTube and Instagram are not any more mostly social with the basic role of making and empowering investment in social organizing locales for individuals to mingle and look at what companions are doing (Olsson and Dahlgren, 2010; Bakardjieva, 2010), however, have rather, turned out to be ground-breaking apparatuses for political correspondence and commitment, and a valuable methods for policing decision brings about Nigeria and by augmentation, veritable instruments for dynamic political cooperation. In this example, web based life wound up not just “destinations of information?? giving numerous Nigerians with political voice yet in addition “locales of activity” (Signe Bock, 2015).

Also the 21st century online life have not recently been a minor wonder on the internet; it has moreover turn out to be a piece of our day by day schedule. Social media have impacted this age with the end goal that a few people can’t manage without going on the web in an entire day thus for such people, one can state they are enormously instructed, educated furthermore, impacted by internet based life intentionally or unknowingly. As called attention to by Hinton and Hjorth (2013:2), “Online life impacts the manner in which we think experience and practice ‘online media’. It is never again a minor type of youngster mingling – it has turn into an basic some portion of our regular daily existence which has impacted how we reflect and lock in with companions, family, associates and even do governmental issues. “Government officials have swerved from the utilization of the old media for example, the print (daily papers) and the electronic media (TV and radio), to the utilization of the new media amid electioneering to complete their political objectives. Today, government officials have grasped the utilization of Social Media, which is one of the quickest ICT instruments in the 21st century to achieve their goals during the election.

Face book has helped some countries with their election process as well as it goes a further way in elections because it is seen that people participate more in social media and that’s where a lot of people get their information from.

1.2 Statement of problem
In places like Edo state and some villages which are in Edo need to also be able to get information easily as people who are in Lagos state or Abuja. People are not fully aware about the things that are going on in their state or how the people who are ruling them think or what they say or what their next move will be for the betterment of the state.

Most people cannot even read and write and they know nothing about technology or even how to use a phone or anything about using a computer, the just go about with their day to day activities without knowing what is going on around them.

For instance during the last Edo governorship elections some people were carrying around a fake result from the elections and were announcing it on twitter and spreading it to everybody what the result was and because the issue was something that did not really require the need to be published on the newspaper or to go to the TV channels for INEC went on twitter and said that ” it has come to the attention of the Independent National Electoral Commission that some persons have started publishing the result of the governorship elections, such result should be disregarded as only INEC or its designated officials to do so. ” this was what INEC posted on twitter during that time on social media in order to pass across that information and people that already heard about the fake results from one person or another who do not have social media accounts or a good network won’t have been able to get that information and know that it was not true. This is why we need to ensure that a lot of people should be educated about the role social media plays in politics down to our everyday lives.

This project shows how important the social media is to Edo governorship elections in 2015, and how it is very imperative that people are educated on how to use a computer before upgrading to a smart phone.

1.3 Research Questions
The research questions are as follow:
How has social media impacted elections in Edo state Governorship election of 2015?.

What is the major roles Face book has played in the election?
How can social media (facebook) increase the awareness of the people on what to do at election?
1.4 Research Objectives
The objectives of this project are to:
Examine the ways social media affected the 2015 governorship election in Edo state.

Determine the major roles facebook placed in the 2015 governorship election in Edo state.

Explore how the social media ( facebook)
1.5 Significance of the study
This project helps people to understand the there is a huge need for people to learn how to use technology and be able to go on sites and search for things and join social media because if we believe it or not in the long run technology will advance and we will be forces to use our devices and do a lot of things from there.

Already half of the world get their information from social media no matter what is it they need even down to being advised people go to look for advice on the social media. With the evolving of the Internet applications, came the invention of social media to further foster socialization and connectivity of individuals from one end of the world to another. However, “the use of social media has gone beyond connecting with friends and family, entertaining, or mere socializing. It was and is still being used as a tool to disseminate information that has in turn led to political changes in the world. The emergence of social media is a phenomenon that has transformed the interaction, communication and sharing of information between people throughout the world in the 21stcentury”(Ajayi&Adesote, 2015). Hence, this research will be significant because it will make people to understand the necessitate of social media and it’s great impact on election.

1.7 Scope of study
The study focuses largely on the role of social media (Face book) and its impact in the Edo governorship election of 2015. It covers the period of the whole of 2009-2015 and how it has affected the electoral process and the candidate’s way of campaigning.

1.8 Limitations of Study
This study examines the effect of social media during elections. It is limited to the Edo State governorship elections of 2015, and how it has increased the awareness of the electorates in the Edo State 2015 governorship election.

1.9 Organization of Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one contains the background of study, statement of problem, research questions, objectives of study, scope of study, significance of study, limitations of study and organizations of study. Chapter two focuses on the literature review and the theoretical framework. Chapter three addresses the research melbolosy and social media in elections. Chapter four focuses on the data representation and analysis, while Chapter five deals with the summary recommendations and conclusion.



ID NUMBER: MAW0101811351
‘Personality’ is a nature-versus-nurture (that is heredity versus environment) issue. Discuss all the relevant determinants with instances.

PERSONALITY- The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. The debate on personality research centered on whether an individual’s personality was the result of heredity or of environment. That is, was personality primarily determined at birth, or was it the result of the individual’s interaction with his or her environments? Undeniable there is no simple Black-and – White answer. Personality appears to be a result of both hereditary and environmental factors
Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are generally considered to be either completely or substantially influenced by who your parents are, that is by their biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup. The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.

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A stream of conducted research has provided credible facts to the argument that heredity plays an important part in determining an individual’s personality. One research looks at the genetics underpinnings of human behaviour and temperament among young children. The second considered the study of twins who were separated at birth, a study conducted by Dr. Nancy Segal a coordinator of the University of Minnesota research project. The third examine the consistency in job satisfaction over time and across situations.

Studies of young children lend strong support to the power of heredity. Evidence demonstrates that traits such as fear, aggressiveness and shyness can be traced to inherited genetic characteristics. These findings suggest that some personality traits may be built into the same genetic code that affects factors such as height and hair colour.

Researchers have studied more than hundred sets of identical twins who were separated at birth and raised separately. If heredity played little or no role in determining personality, you would expect to find few similarities between the separated twins. But Dr. Nancy Sagal and his research team over thirty one year’s study of identical twins reared apart concluded that heredity plays an important role in determining personality. The researchers discovered that the set of twins studied shared more personality characteristics than siblings raised in the same family.

For almost every behaviour trait, a significant part of the variation between the twins turned out to be associated with genetic factors. For instance, one set of twins who had been separated for thirty nine years and raised forty five miles apart were found to drive the same model and colour car, chain-smoked the same brand of cigarette, owned dogs with the same name, and regularly vacationed within three blocks of each other in a beach community one thousand, five hundred miles away. Researchers have found that genetics accounts for about fifty per cent of the personality differences and more than thirty per cent of variation in occupational and leisure interests.

Interestingly, the twin studies have suggested that the parental environment doesn’t add much to our personality development. In other words, the personalities of identical twins raised in different households are more similar to each other than the personalities of the separated twins to the siblings they were actually raised with. Ironically, the most important contribution our parents may have made to our personalities is giving us their genes!
Further support for the importance of heredity can be found in studies of individual job satisfaction. Individual job satisfaction is found to be relatively stable over time. This result is consistent with what you would expect if satisfaction is determined by something inherent in the person rather than by external environmental factors. In fact, research has shown that identical twins reared apart have similar job satisfaction levels, even if their jobs are completely different


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