Name -Hay Zin ZuuModule Name -Management & Organizational Behavior
Course -Professional Diploma in Business
Lecture Name -Daw Htay HtayApply Date -19th April ,2018
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.Understanding Organizational behavior and structure PAGEREF _Toc511922570 h 3(a) The nature of organizational behavior PAGEREF _Toc511922571 h 3(b) Various types of organization structure and their advantages and disadvantages PAGEREF _Toc511922572 h 32. Management decision making and planning PAGEREF _Toc511922573 h 6(a) Decision making process and types of decision PAGEREF _Toc511922574 h 6(b) Important of planning and types of plan PAGEREF _Toc511922575 h 6( c ) Advantages and Disadvantages of Management by Objective PAGEREF _Toc511922576 h 83. Management and Leadership and theories of organization PAGEREF _Toc511922577 h 8(a) Differences between Manager & Leader PAGEREF _Toc511922578 h 8(b) Two styles of management and their impact on organizational behavior PAGEREF _Toc511922579 h 9( c ) Two leadership styles and suitable leadership theory for the development of organization PAGEREF _Toc511922580 h 104. Motivation and Performance PAGEREF _Toc511922581 h 11(a) The important of employees motivation and job satisfaction PAGEREF _Toc511922582 h 11(b) How effective control can improve organizational performance PAGEREF _Toc511922583 h 11References PAGEREF _Toc511922584 h 12
1.Understanding Organizational behavior and structure(a) The nature of organizational behaviorOrganizational behavior is one of management process which studies human behavior in organization setting and the interface between human and the organization and also the organization itself. Every employee of an organization has different personal characteristics and experiences which can be highly effect on the organization. Organization behavior is not a business function or title or responsibilities, it’s provides various tools and insight that every manager can use to carry out their jobs more effectively. Knowing organization behavior also helps to achieve effective and efficient attainment of organizational goals. By understanding organizational behavior, manager can choose the right person for organization, handle employee to achieve both individual and organizational goals and so on. Organizational behavior is also the study and application of knowledge about how people act within the organization. It is a human tool for human benefit. Organizations are the associations of individuals. Individuals differ in many respects. The study of individual’s personality, perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning and motivation.
(b) Various types of organization structure and their advantages and disadvantagesThere are many types of organizational structure such as
Pre-bureaucratic structuresBureaucratic structuresPost-bureaucraticFunctional structureDivisional structureMatrix structureOrganizational CircleTeamNetworkVirtualHierarchy-community phenotype model and etc.
Among them, functional structure, divisional structure, matrix structure and project based organizational structure are more basically. In generally, we can divide organizational structures into two group Hierarchical/ Tall organization and Flat organization.
Tall Organizational Structure
Advantage of Tall Organizational SturctureEasier to supervise staff
Roles within organization is clearly defined
Authority and responsibility are clearly defined.
Obvious chain of command.
More opportunity for promotion
Manageable workload for employee
Disadvantages of Tall Organizational Structure
High management cost
Slow decision making
Ineffective and slow communication
Employees are less motivated, innovation suffers
Less rewards are given to staff, de- motivational
Subordinates have less freedom and responsibility
Flat Organizational Structure
Advantages of Flat Organizational StrucutreFlexible and better able to adapt to change
More direct and effective communication
Faster decision making
Greater autonomy and decision making for staff
Less holding of information at the top
Disadvantages of Flat Organizational Structure
Less clear specific job function
Less opportunity for promotion
High managerial workload
More difficult to coordinate between the subordinates
Less close relationship between superior and staff
Produces more generalist then specialist
2. Management decision making and planning
(a) Decision making process and types of decisionThe very first step of decision making process is to identify a problem which needs to make decision. And determine difference of that decision will make to the customer or employees. Next, to identify decision criteria Right decision need to base on facts and data, so need to gather information as much as you can. Managers must determine what is relevant in making a decision. Then, manger needs to allocating weights to the criteria because all problems are equally important so the items must be weighted in order to give them the correct priority in the decision. The fourth step is developing alternatives. It’s requires the decision maker to list the viable alternatives that could resolve the problem. And then managers need to analyzing alternatives, once the alternatives have been identified the decision maker must critically analyze each one. The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become evident as they are compared with the criteria and weights. The sixth step is selecting an alternative, the crucial act of choosing the best alternative from among those listed and assessed. The next step is implementing the alternative. While the choice process is completed, the decision may still fail if it isn’t implemented properly. This step is concerned with putting the decision into action. The final step of decision making processes is evaluating decision effectiveness. This step appraises the result of the decision to see whether the problem has been resolved.
There are two types of decision_ Programmed decision and Nonprogrammed decision. Programmed Decision _ For well-structured problems which are repetitive and routine and to the extent that a definite approach has been worked out for handling them. Programmed decision is relatively simple and tends to rely heavily on previous solutions. Nonprogrammed decisions are unique and nonrecurring. When a manager confronts an ill-structured problem, or one that is unique, there is no cut and dried solution. It requires a custom-made response.
(b) Important of planning and types of planPlanning gives direction, reduces the impact of change, minimizes waste and redundancy, and sets the standards used in controlling. Planning establishes coordinated effort. When employees know where the organization is going and what they must contribute to reach the objective, they can coordinate their activities, cooperate with each other, and work in teams. Without planning, departments could be working at cross purpose and preventing the organization from moving efficiently toward its objectives. Planning establishes objectives or standards that are used in controlling. Planning is important because without planning, there would be no way to control.
There are three different types of plan_
Strategic Vs Operational Plans
Short term Vs Long Term Plans
Specific Vs Directional Plan
Strategic Vs Operational Plans
Plans that apply to the entire organization which establish the organization’s overall objectives, and seek to position the organization in terms of its environment are called strategic plans. Strategic plans have a long term time frame. Plans that specify the details of how the overall objectives are to be achieved are called operational plans. Operational plan have a short term time frame. In both plans, three differences have been identified_ time frame, scope and whether or not include a known set of organizational objectives.
Short Term Vs Long Term Plans
The short term plan covers less than one year and long term frame have over five years.
Specific Vs Directional Plans
Specific plans have clearly defined objectives. There is no ambiguity, no problem with misunderstandings. Directional plans identify general guidelines. They provide focus but do not lock managers into specific objectives or courses of action.
( c ) Advantages and Disadvantages of Management by ObjectiveAdvantages Disadvantages
1. Aid coordination of goals and plans. 1. Tends to falter without strong, continual commitment from top management.
2. Helps clarify priorities and expectations 2. Necessitates considerable training od managers
3. Facilitates vertical and horizontal communication 3. Can be misused as a punitive device
4. Fosters employee motivation 4. May cause overemphasis of quantitative goals
5. Make employees feel like an important part of the organization 5. Can result in excessive paperwork
6. Periodic review enhances control 6. Assign goals instead of collaborating on creating.
3. Management and Leadership and theories of organization(a) Differences between Manager ; LeaderLeadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. On the other hand, management use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. Here are some differences between Manager ; Leader_
Do things right Do the right things
Focus on how things should be done Focus on what can be accomplished
Rules oriented Outcomes oriented
Ensure stability of the system Energize the system
Procedure, Strategy, Objective Vision, Inspiration, Courage
Drive employees Coach employees
Knows how it’s done Shows how it’s done
Evaluates Seek opportunities
Minimizes risk Takes risk
Manage change _ ensure the ability to handle
it Create change_ take followers to one place to another
(b) Two styles of management and their impact on organizational behaviorThere are many management styles such as autocratic, democratic and continuum styles. In autocratic management style, manager dictated policies, procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved and direct and control all the activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates. This management has full control of the team leaving low autonomy within the group. The characteristic of autocratic management styles are unlimited power to a single person, no feedback, manager remain above the rules ; regulations, no input from subordinates in decision making, environment will be influenced by the mood of manager, produce unskilled workers and no teamwork. But in the democratic management style, the power and authority is redistributed between the employees and they are involved in the decision making. The democratic style manager is open to other opinion and welcome their contribution into the decision making process. The characteristic of democratic management style are cooperative relations, positive motivation, belief in employees, and open in communication.
Both upper describe management styles have well and bad impact for the organizational behavior. By using autocratic management style, manager can make quick and clear decision, less pressure to employees so can create satisfactory of work, necessary for less educated employees and can reduce the cost of labour. But this style of management can also lead employees to the lack of motivation, less productivity, agitation and possibility of partiality. In the using of democratic management style, organization can develop high moral of the employees, create more efficiency and productivity, and can build the peaceful industrial relationship. This style of management still have bad impact for the organizational behavior, it’s require educated subordinates, sometime might be delay in decision making process, and even the lack of responsibilities in managers.
( c ) Two leadership styles and suitable leadership theory for the development of organization The two types of Leadership styles are Transactional and Transformational leadership. The transactional leaders are the leaders who guide or motivated their followers in the direction of established goals by the clarifying role and task requirements. There are two characteristic of transactional leadership such as contingent reward and management by exception; contingent reward means contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognize accomplishments. Management by exception is watch and search for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action. On the other hand, the transformational leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation and who posses charisma. The transformational leaders also have some characteristic such as idealized influence, inspiration, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration.
Both leadership styles have advantages and disadvantages but according to the recent situation of local market and labour market, transactional leadership style will be more suitable for the short term development of the organization. Because it is easy for workers to complete task successfully. Transactional leadership style is easy to learn and does not require extensive training. And it is also easier to apply in crisis situation. Then, needs to change to transformational leadership style for the long term development of the organization.
4. Motivation and Performance(a) The important of employees motivation and job satisfactionMotivation is the processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a organizational goal. There are two types of motivation intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the satisfaction a person receives in the process of performing a particular action. Extrinsic motivation is a reward given by another person, just like a manager, and includes promotion and pay increases. The motivated employees are in the state of tension. To relieve tension, they exert effort. The greater the tension, the higher the effort level. If this effort successfully leads to the satisfaction of the need it reduces tension. In every organization, the motivation of employee is very important because this can lead to the more productivity, more creativity, less stress, higher retention rate, less absenteeism, better customer service, improved quality, more trust, more professionalism, and higher moral etc,
Job satisfaction of the employees is also important in every organization. Without job satisfaction, there will be not motivation. Job satisfaction can be occurred when the particular job can fulfill the needs of the employee. These needs may be consume with psychological, safety, social, esteem and self -actualization. We can also motivating jobs through job redesign by job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation. Job enlargement means adding more tasks of similar skill level to the job of the employee. Job enrichment means adding more responsibility and autonomy to the job. Job rotation means adding more task which are not similar to the recent duties and let the employee in the rotation period of time.
(b) How effective control can improve organizational performanceControlling is the process of monitoring activities to ensure that they’re being accomplished as planned and of correcting any significant deviations. Controlling is related to the planning process because there’s no assurance that activities are going as planned. Controlling is important because it’s the final link in the functional chain of management activities. It is the only way manager know whether or not organizational goals are being met or not. Manager needs to follow up to ensure that the actions others are supposed to take and the objectives are supposed to achieve. Controlling activity provide the crucial link back to planning. If the manager didn’t control, there is no way to know whether or not the objectives and plans of the organization were on target and what future actions to take. The process of control has three steps _ measuring, comparing and taking managerial action. There are also three types of control_ feed forward control, concurrent control and feedback control. Feed forward control is emphasized on input to anticipate problems. The concurrent is the controlling the processes to corrects problems as they happen. The final feedback control is controlling the output to correct problems after they occur. The quality of an effective control system has 10 characteristics _ accuracy, timeliness, economy, flexibility, understandability, reasonable criteria, strategic placement, emphasis of the exception, multiple criteria and corrective action.
Organizational behavior by Griffin ; Moorhead