MATRICC NO: LMBA4-05/18-00016
The Psychodynamic model states that people tend to be successful and self-employed
because of “troubled childhood”. The troubled childhood days are a result of abuses, low self-esteem, low level of confidence and self esteem. Growing in such an environment some people do have suppressed wishes and dreams towards those in control (Jignesh Rathod, 2017).
You are strongly advised to refer the relevant topics covered in this module and refer to real-life industry examples and address the following requirements.

1. Critically articulate the theory or the model associated with the information provided
2. Through a real time example of a businessmen associated with the model, critically
examine the creative and innovation he adapted in his business to be successful

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Question 1: Critically articulate the theory or the model associated with the information provided above

The psychodynamic approach comprises all the models in psychology which see human’s operative built upon the interface of energies and forces inside the individual, mostly unconscious, and amongst the diverse structures of the character. Freud’s psychoanalysis remained the novel psychodynamic concept, nevertheless the entire psychodynamic method contained all models that remained grounded on his ideas, the words’ psychodynamic and psychoanalytic was regularly jumbled. Recollect that Freud’s concepts stayed psychoanalytic, but the term ‘psychodynamic’ mentioned to both his philosophies and those of his supporters. Freud’s psychoanalysis is equally a concept and rehabilitation.
Sigmund Freud (amongst the 1890s and the 1930s) established a group of philosophies that have designed the foundation of the psychodynamic method to psychology. His models are efficiently acquired – i.e., grounded on what his patients told him during a therapy. The psychodynamic therapist would regularly be giving to the patient for misery or worry associated syndromes. Through his psychodynamic philosophy of the psyche, Sigmund Freud declared that our character and the intellectual problems that we grieve can be sketched outside our conscious self-discipline – that our unintentional mind, and the inborn instincts that we might not be alert of, are what inspires the mode in which we act. Freud remained an initial browser of speaking remedy, which presumed that by speaking about an issue with a psychotherapist, an individual can recognize any problems that may have happened previously in lifetime and in chance, overpowered the existing inner battles of their unconscious observance. His interest was in the changing aspects of the mind – the conscious and its subconscious influences. He felt that the energy in the psyche was an endless value, and so instead of vanishing from the conscious, it would shape up in the subconscious and cause cumulative inner tension until it was addressed. For example, if something annoys you, the liveliness of your anger does not expend itself if you internalize it. Rather, it may be moved to the subconscious, and lead to a suppressed anger which you may be ignorant of on a conscious level. Freud claimed that the human psyche contained of three separate areas – the id, ego, and superego – which compete against one another for control over our behavior.
THE ID signifies our most thoughtless, wild needs, and pay no respect for what is suitable or sensible. Inborn characters such as the need for food, water, warmth and sexual desires originate in our id. In a sense, the id is our ‘inner child’ – it drives our natural behaviors from birth and supposes its anxieties to be met instantly, irrespective of any penalties. The id stands by the Desire Code, which declares that we seek to maximize pleasure and sidestep pain wherever possible. Also confined
within the id is the death determination, a self-destructive impulsiveness which drives us to the end of our life.

The next component of the psyche is the ego, which acts as a midway between the awkward demands of the id and the outside reality. It tries to please the desires of the id as much as is virtually possible without essentially considering why some demands might be unreasonable. The ego remains self-centred and does not ponder on other people’s needs or wishes. It acts according to the Realism Attitude, which, is different from the Desire Code of the ID, takes the confines of what can be gotten from the outside world.

The final factor of our psyche is the superego. This senses concern for others and again tries to satisfy the wants of the id, but recognize that some of those wants may unfavorably touch others. It acts as a filter for our behavior and preserves our conscience, leading to considering other people’s emotions and to demonstrative responsibility.
The utmost reproach of the psychodynamic approach is that it is irrational in its examination of human behavior. Many of the perceptions central to Freud’s theories are independent, and as such, tough to exam technically. For example, how is it conceivable to scientifically study perceptions like the unconscious mind or the triple personality? In this reverence, it could be claimed that the psychodynamic viewpoint is confirmable as its theories cannot be empirically examined. However, cognitive psychology has recognized unconscious procedures, such as procedural memory (Tulving, 1972), automatic processing (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Stroop, 1935), and social psychology have revealed the position of implied processing (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Such experimental results have established the character of unconscious processes in human behaviour.
Kline (1989) claims that psychodynamic theory contains a sequence of hypotheses, some of which are more simply verified than others, and some with more subsidiary evidence than others. Also, while the theories of the psychodynamic approach may not be effortlessly verified, this does not mean that it does not have solid descriptive control. However, most of the proves for psychodynamic theories is interpreted from Freud’s case studies. The core situation now is that the case studies are supported on reviewing one individual in detail, and with input to Freud, the persons in question are most often his patients. This makes inductive reasoning to the whole world tough. Other tricks with the case study technique is that it is inclined to scientist favouritism. Review of Freud’s scientific effort advises that he occasionally one-sided his patients’ case antiquities to ‘fit’ with his theory (Sulloway, 1991). The humanistic approach makes the reproach that the psychodynamic viewpoint is too settled. Freud proposes that all views, characters, and reactions are resolute by our infant understandings and unconscious psychological procedures. This is dimness because it recommends, we have no conscious power over our actions, parting slight room for the knowledge of own action.

Question2. Through a real time example of a businessmen associated with the model, critically examine the creative and innovation he adapted in his business to be successful

THE SUCCESS STORY OF OPRAH WINFREY, the wealthiest African American of the 20th era, was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi in 1958, on 29th of January. She is recognized as the most self-made American television fabricator, host, and humanitarian and is among the utmost powerful women in the universe. She did not have a hopeful infancy and had to experience a diversity of poverties in her adolescent life. After her parents’ parting, she was referred to her grandparents, to lived in so much lack. Some say that she used to
dress on clothes made of potato sack. She united with her mother at the age of 6 who relocated with her to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Her mother spent her all day out employed as a maid at homes and had no time for petite Winfrey. At the age of nine, as she says, she was raped by her cousin, her uncle, and a family friend. When she could not take it anymore, she flees away from her home at the age of 13 and had a child at 14. After her son’s demise in embryonic stage, she went back to live with her hair stylist father in Tennessee. This was the first time, as she recollected, she that she studied extremely hard and attained an honours’ student. Her devotion shortly was rewarded and she turned out to be the most popular student at East Nashville High School and gained numerous honors in open speech competition. Later, she went to study communication from Tennessee State University.
At the age of 19, her life was turned around when she was employed at a local Radio Station as a co-anchor for the local evening news. In 1984, she underway to host ‘AM Chicago’, an early morning talk show where she shared her story and used it to motivate other women who had similar experience with her, which later most watched show in America. Later, it was retitled as ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’. The combined talk show turns out to be the most widespread show in the Television antiquity with over 30 million American audiences and traversed across 144 nations international. She has also shown herself as the greatest significant spiritual frontrunner through ‘Change Your Life TV’ with 22 million feminine spectators.
Apart from being a TV host and producer, she is the co-founder of Oxygen Media and initiator of Oprah Magazine. In 1998, she began a contribution named “Oprah’s Angel Network” for which she handles all organizational costs. She is recognized as the 32nd most humanitarian person in the universe. In 2005, Business Week recruited her name amongst 50 most substantial humanitarians for her involvement which was comparable to $303 million dollars. As said by Forbes of 2009, her valuable is $2.7 billion dollar.

McLeod, S. A. (2017). Psychodynamic approach. Retrieved from
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Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American psychologist, 54(7), 462.
Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
Freud, A. (1936). Ego & the mechanisms of defense.
Freud, S., & Breuer. J. (1895). Studies on hysteria. In Standard edition (Vol. 2, pp. 1–335).
Freud, S. (1896). Heredity and the etiology of the neuroses. In Standard edition (Vol. 3, pp. 142–156).
Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. In Standard edition (Vols. 4 & 5, pp. 1–627).
Freud, S. (1909). Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis. In Standard edition (Vol. 10, pp. 153–249).
Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a phobia of a five-year-old boy. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306.
Freud, S. (1915). The unconscious. SE, 14: 159-204.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological review, 102(1), 4.
Jung, C. G. (1907). Ueber die Psychologie der Dementia praecox. Psychological Bulletin, 4(6), 196-197.
Jung, C. G. (1912). Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido: Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens. F. Deuticke.
Jung, C. G., et al. (1964). Man and his Symbols, New York, N.Y.: Anchor Books, Doubleday.
Kline, P. (1989). Objective tests of Freud’s theories. Psychology Survey, 7, 127-45.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 18(6), 643.
Sulloway, F. J. (1991). Reassessing Freud’s case histories: The social construction of psychoanalysis. Isis, 82(2), 245-275.
Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory, (pp. 381–403). New York: Academic Press.
Wilson, T. D. (2004). Strangers to ourselves. Harvard University Press


Name: Aeinnor A. Reyes
Section: 9-Pious”The Misled Traveler”
“A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step” – Lao Tzu
In this afternoon, this point of your life, have you been moving forward in your journey?
Yes, the journey of life. Never a bed of roses, never a relaxing walk. It is filled with challenges and hardships that we need to face in order to keep going forward. In this journey there are different paths and different choices. People with different mindsets, with different beliefs, different personalities. We all walk a path, a path not known to many. A path where the only light is our determination to face the challenges head on. But though the journey is rough we still have company. The people around us – our friends, family, and more – serve as our compass. They help us in our path by showing us which way to go. They could lead us to the right path or push as farther away. But this compass may also be controlled by our burdens if we are not careful. Burdens such as disabilities or hardships that we have encountered in our life. This burden that stops our journey from progressing.

Others would jump to the conclusion that their compass is broken and therefore deem their journey to be pointless. They feel like they are just running around a circle of pain and agony where the end does not exist. They feel like they must follow the compass and if not something bad would happen. The compass starts governing their life and they feel powerless. Their light of determination dims and they had given up.

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In my case, this burden was depression. I remember that I let myself stay in my room, lights dimmed, and no window open. I remember sitting on my desk and crying to myself because I felt like no one cares for me. I remember having suicidal thoughts whenever I was faced with a challenge that seems unsolvable. But then one day, I realized that I needed to fix my compass. With the help of my friends and family I was able to fix it. My compass began to lead me to the right path, all I needed was to know that there are people who care, people who knew my suffering, people who were there for me even at my worst state. From then on, I took control of my own compass. After I have stumbled down the path, I became more observant of where I was going. I became more aware of how my actions could affect me, because I didn’t want to fall down again. But as humans are, I could not refrain myself from doing so, I kept falling down and wanting to get up, but I find it hard. The burden that I carried was too heavy for me. But with the support of my friends, family and Jesus the weight became lighter.

Don’t end your journey because your compass is broken. Take control of your compass and go where you want to go. I went to my friends, my family, and Jesus and I do not regret that decision. Because I found hope, I found love, and I felt peace. I may not know how heavy your burden is or who controls your compass. But look behind you and see how far you’ve come. Listen to your heart and find strength, I found mine in Jesus and I know that you will find yours. In this path we all have walked a thousand miles, some fast, some slow. But bear in mind that you are not alone you have your compass to guide you.


Section: B81

Topic: Gender Discrimination in Maritime Industry

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Gender discrimination has been an issue and topic of debates and discussions for decades. It usually happens in all professions. One of which is maritime industry. In this paper, online articles are viewed and analyzed to discuss the forms of Gender discrimination in Maritime Industry.

Being a seafarer is not that easy. Aside from numerous job qualification, women experience difficulty in the application process. According to Durak (n.d.), there are many forms of gender discrimination. A seafarer’s job is globally male-dominated work. Many women encounter difficulties in finding a job. Inequalities also happen when it comes in hiring. Some companies do not employ them. They believe that women should improved their skill and ability. On the other hand, women can work as hard as men do, they must be treated equally in terms of hiring. In order to support women, in some countries they follow the steps established by International Maritime Organization (IMO) in honing and empowering women on issues involving industry. Without discrimination women can entirely and thinking about co-workers discriminating them, but there are some companies that promotes a women, they encourage women to be part of the maritime industry. Women believes that if you cannot beat them, join them. In the past few years, the percentage of women that are being employed raised, that made other inspire working at sea.

Maritime environment is strictly male-dominated, women at sea may feel ignored or not belonged because of their limited capabilities. There are many operations onboard the ship. It is divided according to their departments, like Deck, Engine and Steward. Inequalities also happens when it comes on working inside the ship. According to Mukherjee (2017), the percentage of women in the ship are increasing, but they experience a lot of challenges. Some workers inside the ship are not fair to their co-workers especially on women. They said that women are not competent enough to that job. Most of the operation onboard he ship are more on physical such as lifting, unloading cargo and changing oils.


Financial Analysis
The company commenced business operations in 2001. However, after its commencing, it was faced with a financial crisis because the firm’s sales dropped from $48 million to $18 million over a period of 6 months. However, from the case study, it is evident that the company has been performing well. This is attributed to the sales margin that the company recorded in the year 2014 as compared to 2013. A snapshot of the financial statements in the case study shows that the company had been experiencing significant growth. This is evidenced by the notable difference between some of the key metrics such as gross margin, inventory, sales, net profit, and expenses generally. From a theoretical perspective, a company that portrays such level of growth is normally a good buy for investors. It is also considered a heavy investment with complex financial leverage, hence higher expected utility return. This lead to investors expecting a risk premium. It means that the company has invested a lot in the complex business cycle and therefore investors should expect higher returns at the end of the financial year. Cameron Auto Parts increased their sales margin from $105 million to $150 million between 2014 and 2013. The increase was attributed to good management effectiveness. Besides that, it is also prudent to argue that one of the other reasons that accelerated the increase was an increase in the sales of automobile in the American market. It is also evident that the company net assets increased from $65.3 million to $50.3 million in 2014. The increase was attributed to an increased and improved business cycle, therefore leading to efficient utilization of assets of the company. Over the years since inception, the company has been learning ways of cutting costs and reducing expenses. This includes the use of a $5 million credit line to reinvest back into the company by modernizing and investing in computer systems that would assist increase manufacturing efficiency. The total equity had also increased in 2014 as compared to 2013. It implies that the company was able to issue more stock to shareholders and more investors found the company an attractive business venture. The return on assets ratio in 2014 was 18.4%, an increase of 6.5% compared to 2013. This is an indication that the company was using its assets well in ensuring that the firm generates economic growth for the company’s future prospects. On the other hand, the ROA also shows that the management effectiveness was fair and the board of management was able to implement decisions that would drive growth into the company. However, the financial leverage of the firm increased between 2013 and 2014. This was attributed to heavy financial investment in order to promote growth in the company. The company’s distribution channels had been improving for the last three years with France being the largest consumer of the products produced by the company.

The net profit after tax doubled in 2014 to $12 million from $ 6 million in 2013. This was a good indication as it implies that the firm was able to maximize their revenues and minimized their expenses hence resulting in a positive outcome.

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The case study shows that the company is good place to invest. Some of the key drivers is that the company has a large presence in the international automobile market. Besides that the company has been showing positive incremental growth since inception and this is a major factor to consider while investing in a company. Cameron should do a joint venture with Michealand. One of the advantages is that the Australian market is a completely new move for the company. This is because it has never been involved in such before. The joint venture will see to it that the product is sold with a lot of ease. Having a plant in Australia is an advantage because Michealand knows the market well enough and sells some flexible coupings to other lines. This implies that their market source is powerful and hence a joint venture could come in handing. It has always been was one of the key goals penetrating into the international market and have the company’s presence felt in the automobile industry all over the world especially Australia. This means that the Joint Agreement t would accelerate the business strategy.
The firm was in a superior position to get into the international market because of the good cultural understanding and also the close proximity to customers and consumers. In addition to that Alex also mentioned that the company has been growing really fast and this exponential growth would make a significant impact on Cameron. With this business strategy coming into place, Cameron Auto parts would be in a position to form other similar partnership agreements with other multinationals and therefore expand their market and increase their customer base. The French agreement was proving to be a viable business with potential market of the entire European market. Its previous license agreement with McTaggars was attributed to the company being reputable for excellent credit, best manufacturing practices, good market contacts and 130 years of service delivery to its clients. Similarly, the French agreement involved a company that has long been in service and a reputable one for that matter. Embarking on the strategy would reduce and eliminate the prohibitive cost of developing and maintain sales in a foreign country. In addition to that, orders would be placed easily as the products and goods would be made locally available and this would reduce the costs of shipping and also reduce on the travel time in order for the product to get to the consumer. This would also reduce on the tax rates. It was also a good decision for administrative and economic distance reasons. Due to the fact that the product would be manufactured outside UK, it would be less subjected to taxes such as import duty and also encourage tax waivers, freight insurance and a reduction in the value added tax. In as much as misleading statements were found about the company’s capability to sustain in the market, it was reported that in France, tax reasons lead to the low sales in Germany and Holland and therefore the cause for the sporadic sales in these two countries. Pierre argued that the company was also already familiar with the product and had was willing to reduce the price by 25% in order to make sales worth 9.6 million euros. The firm was able to sell the product as fast as it could be shipped into France. Besides that, the production experience that Cameron may benefit from would increase production capacity by a huge percentage. Lastly, the value of the dollar fell during the original five year contract and the percentage of sales in euros produced a higher dollar income for Cameron without changing the price of the products sold. The disadvantages of continuing to export are loss of profits due to shipping costs, currency values, taxes and tariffs. The five year contract allows Cameron to evaluate the effectiveness of the joint venture strategy and determine whether this is a profitable venture for the company.
It is important to point out that the royalty rate was reasonable for both companies. Cameron was able to get into the French’s market using Michealand sales, force, save on tax duties, cut down lead times and freight insurance. He 4% royalty rate was effective as Michealand was in a position to sell a product that already was in demand and this helped increase sales and gain valuable insights into the firm’s manufacturing process. Both companies would benefit from the shared knowledge they could provide each other, thus make the licensing agreement valuable for everyone involved.


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