Motors used in robotics all have different characteristics

Motors are used in robots to drive the movement of thejoints. This can be done by powering a geared unit or driving a pump to moveair or fluids that will create a differential pressure. The main type of motorthat is used in robotics is an AC Servo motor.

These motors are used due to thefact that they can run at a high torque and have a resistance to externalforces so they cannot be moved.BrakesThere are two main ways in which brakes are used inrobots. The two methods are electrical braking and mechanical braking. Commonmethods of electrical breaking include plugging, AC dynamic braking, DCinjection braking, Capacitive Braking and Regenerative Braking. The commonmethods of mechanical braking is brake shoes and brake discs/callipers. SensorsEach sensor that is used in robotics all have differentcharacteristics dependant on the circumstances and the task that is at hand.

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The main purpose of a sensor is to give the robot awareness of its surroundingsand the presence of things such as physical objects, light, magnetic fields andsound. They can also be used on the robot arm itself to judge motion forces andare not only used in the robot work-cell.Teach PendantThere are many different types and sizes of teach pendantbut all of them are designed to instruct the robot from a hand held device.They are generally used for step-by-step control and have the advantage to givethe operator a chance to perfect a task using real-time control. A dead manshandle is fitted on all pendants that will disable the robot instantly if thebutton is released and acts as an emergency stop button. The pendants can alsobe switched between auto and teach mode.End – EffectorThe end effectors are the tools that will complete thedesired task that the robot has been assigned. The robot itself is programmedto ensure that the end effectors are in their desired position and state infree space.

There are too many different end effectors to describe but someexamples may be some sort of claw that will pick and object up or a spray paintgun that will move as told by its programme to cover a surface in paint. Theeffector must have the ability to be placed into free space by the robot arm inany orientation.Task 2A) Identify 3 of the most common methods of robotic programming;giving a description of each.   There are 3 common methods that can be used for roboticprogramming. The main 3 are ‘Offline’, ‘Online’ and ‘Video’.

Each one hasdifferent advantages and disadvantages when it comes to programming.OfflineOffline programming is achieved via a remote PC in whichsome sort of programming software will be used. A popular software used forprogramming is ‘Kuka Sim’. This allows you to import different types of robottemplates and environments that the robot may be in. Within the software youcan write various programmes to control your robot. It also allows you tosimulate the programme so you can see how the robot will move in real life.

Theprogramme has the ability to identify any foreign objects that will obstructthe robot. Offline programming allows you to write long and complexprogrammes with minimal margin for error. The simulation function means thatyou don’t have to test the robot physically in a potentially dangerousenvironment where a wrong move or function could potentially cause damage toequipment within the area.

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